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Flashcards in Esperanto Affixes Deck (73):
1

-ant

: present active participle.
fali = to fall falanta = falling.

2

-ont

: future active participle.
fali = to fall falonta = going to fall.

3

-int

: past active participle.
fali = to fall falinta = fallen.

4

-at

: present passive participle.
manĝi = to eat manĝata = being eaten.

5

-it

: past passive participle.
manĝi = to eat manĝita = (having been) eaten.

6

-ot

: future passive participle.
manĝi = to eat, manĝota = going to be eaten.

7

-ad

: shows an action or process defined by the root.
marteli = to hammer, martelado = hammering
boji = to bark (like a dog) bojado = barking
ada = continual, ongoing

8

-aĵ

: shows a concrete, tangible manifestation of the root.
riĉa = rich, riĉaĵoj = riches
havi = to have havaĵoj = possessions
aĵo = a thing

9


-ec

: shows a quality or characteristic defined by the root.
riĉa = rich, riĉeco = richness
blua = blue blueco = blue (of something)
eco = a characteristic, quality

10

-ul

: shows a person characterized by the root.
riĉa = rich, riĉulo = a rich person
bona = good bonulo = a good person
ulo = a guy, dude

11

-an

: member, adherent, participant of the root.
komitato = committee komitatano = a committee-member
Budho = the Buddha budhano = a Buddhist
ano = a member

12

-ar

: a collection of things defined by the root.
arbo = tree arbaro = a forest
ŝafo = a sheep ŝafaro = a flock of sheep
aro = a bunch, group, array

13

-ej

: a place intended for the thing(s) or action(s) defined by the root.
kuiri = to cook kuirejo = a kitchen
preĝi = to pray preĝejo = a church
ejo = a place

14

-er

: the smallest part or element of a collective defined by the root.
sablo = sand sablero = a grain of sand
neĝo = snow neĝero = a snowflake
ero = a unit

15

-estr

: the boss of whatever is defined by the root.
komitato = committee komitatestro = chairmain of the
committee
urbo = town urbestro = mayor
estro = a boss

16

-id

: the offspring of the creature defined in the root.
kato = cat katido = akitten
arbo = tree arbido = a sapling
ido = an offspring

17

-il

: a tool for doing whatever is defined by the root.
komputi = to compute komputilo = a computer
tranĉi = to cut tranĉilo = a knife
ilo = a tool

18


-in

: the specifically female version of whatever is defined by the root.
filo = son filino = daughter
viro = man virino = woman
ino = a woman, female

19

-ing

: a holder or sheath for an object defined by the root.
kandelo = candle kandelingo = candle-holder
cigaro = cigar cigaringo = cigar-holder
ingo = a holder

20

-ism

: a doctrine, movement, system, etc., for the idea defined by the
root.
Budho = Buddha budhismo = Buddhism
Markso = Karl Marx marksismo = Marxism
isma = having to do with doctrine

21

-ist

: an individual professionally or avocationally occupied with the
idea or activity defined by the root

ĵurnalo = newspaper ĵurnalisto = newspaperman,
reporter
lingvo = language lingvisto = a linguist
isto = a professional

22

-uj

: a container for objects described by the root.
salo = salt salujo = salt-shaker
mono = money monujo = a purse
ujo = a container

23

-ik

: an unofficial suffix to form the name of a science, etc., from its
practitioner.
poeto = poet poetiko = poetics
lingvo = language lingviko = linguistics

24

-it

: an unofficial suffix to describe an inflamation of the organ
described by the root.
laringo = larynx laringito = laryngitis
hepato = liver hepatito = hepatitis

25

-ebl

: suitable for having whatever is described by the root done to it.
legi = to read legebla = readable, legible
fari = to do farebla = doable
ebla = possible
ebli = to be possible

26

-em

: having an inclination or tendency towards whatever is described by
the root.
ami = to love amema = loving
labori = to work laborema = industrious
emi = to have a tendency to

27

-end

: must have whatever is described by the root done to it.
fari = to do farenda = must be done
sendi = to send sendenda = must be sent
enda = mandatory

28

-ind

: worth having whatever is described by the root done to it.
ami = to love aminda = loveable
fari = to do farinda = worth doing
indi = to be worthwhile

29

-al

: used to create the adjective form of a noun formed directly from
an adjective.
varma = hot varmo = heat varmala = thermal
ruĝa = red ruĝo = red (color) ruĝala = having to do with
the color red

30

-esk

: similar to, or in the manner of, whatever is described by the
root.
japano = a Japanese japaneska = Japanesque
statuo = a statue statueska = statuesque

31

-iv

: capable of doing whatever is described by the root.
pagi = to pay pagiva = solvent
fari = to do fariva = able to do

32

-oz

: used with noun roots to show the presence of a large quantity of
whatever is described by the root.
poro = pore poroza = porous
sablo = sand sabloza = full of sand

33

-ig

: to cause something to be in the state described by the root.
ruĝa = red ruĝigi = to (cause to) turn red
fari = to do (something) farigi = to have (something) done
igi = to cause to

34

-iĝ

: to become in the state described by the root.
ruĝa = red ruĝiĝi = to become red
fari = to do fariĝi = to become (done)
iĝi = to become

35

-iz

: to apply something (physically or metaphorically) to an object.
plumo = feather plumizi = to fletch
stano = tin stanizi = to tin (as in soldering)

36

-art

: the art of whatever is described by the root.
kuiri = to cook kuirarto = cuisine
navigi = to navigate navigarto = navigation (the art)

37

-am

: loving whatever is described by the root.
gasto = guest gastama = hospitable
mono = money monama = avaricious

38

-hav

: possessing whatever is described by the root.
flugilo = wing flugilhava = winged
oro = gold orhava = possessing gold

39

-plen

: full of whatever is described by the root.
oro = gold orplena = full of gold.
humila = humble humilplena = full of humility

40

-pov

: capable of whatever is described by the root.
esprimi = to express esprimpova = expressive
pagi = to pay pagipova = solvent

41

-riĉ

: rich with whatever is described by the root.
karbo = coal karbriĉa = rich in coal
grasa = fat grasriĉa = fatty

42

-ŝajn

: seeming to be whatever is described by the root.
vera = true verŝajne = apparently
blua = blue bluŝajna = blue-seeming

43

-aspekt

: having the appearance of whatever is described by the root.
reĝo = king reĝaspekta = with the seeming
of a king, kingly
hundo = large hundaspekta = looking like a dog

44

-simil

: being similar to whatever is described by the root.
floro = flower florsimila = like a flower
ŝtono = stone ŝtonsimila = like a stone

45

-manier

: with the manner of whatever is described by the root.
besto = animal bestmaniera = with the manner of
an animal
hundo = dog hundmaniera = dog-like

46

dis-

: having to do with separation, in all possible directions.
sendi = to send dissendi = to broadcast
semi = to sow (seeds) dissemi = to scatter (seeds)
disaj = scattered

47

ek-

: the beginning of an action described by the root.
iri = to go ekiri = to set out
vidi = to see ekvidi = to catch sight of
ek! = move it! get the lead out!

48

for-

: away.
iri = to go foriri = to depart, leave
lasi = to leave forlasi = to abandon
fora = distant

49

mis-

: wrongly, incorrectly, off the mark.
kompreni = to understand miskompreni = to misunderstand
ĵeti = to throw misĵeti = to throw wide of the
mark
misi = to miss, to err

50

re-

: back to the beginning again.
veni = to come reveni = to return
vidi = to see revidi = to see again
venki = to conquer revenki = to reconquer
ree = again

51

retro-

: in the opposite direction.
iri = to go retroiri = to go in the opposite
direction
paŝi = to step retropaŝi = to step back

52

ĉef-

: greatest or most important.
ministro = minister (cabinet type) ĉefministro = Prime Minister,
Premier
urbo = city ĉefurbo = capitol
ĉefa = main

53


vir-

: male equivalent of -in for beings whose sex is usually not
considered important (except, of course, to themselves...),
and whose root form is therefore considered neuter.
kato = cat virkato = tomcat
blato = cockroach virblato = buck cockroach
viro = man, male human

54

cis-

: on this side of.
luno = moon cisluna = cislunar, between earth and moon
limo = border cislima = on this side of the border

55

-aĉ

: gives the word a shading of contempt, detestation.
ĉevalo = horse ĉevalaĉo = nag
domo = house domaĉo = hovel
aĉa = contemptible, disgusting

56

-eg

: augments or strengthens the idea shown by the root.
domo = house domego = mansion
varma = hot varmega = boiling hot
ega = huge

57

-et

: the opposite of -eg, it diminishes the idea shown by the root.
domo = house dometo = cottage
varma = hot varmeta = warm
eta = tiny

58

-um

: the affix equivalent of the preposition je, it has no definite
meaning; words with -um must almost be learned separately.
vento = wind ventumi = to ventilate
aminda = lovable amindumi = to pitch woo
umo = doohicky

59

-if

: to turn something into the root.
varma = hot varmifi = to thermalize

60

-ĉj

: takes a man's name and turns it into an intimate form.
frato = brother fraĉjo = little brother
Johano = John Joĉjo = Jack

61

-nj

: the female equivalent of the above.
frato = brother franjo = little sister
Johana = Joan Jonjo = Joanie

62

bo-

: related through marriage.
patro = father bopatro = father-in-law
kuzo = cousin bokuzo = cousin-in-law
boa = related by marriage

63

eks-

: former.
reĝo = king eksreĝo = former (abdicated) king
Sovetio = Soviet Union ekssovetio = former USSR
eksa = former

64


ge-

: both sexes taken together.
patro = father gepatroj = parents
Sinjoro = Mr. gesinjoroj = Mr. and Mrs.
gea = male+female

65

mal-

: turns a word into its opposite.
bela = beautiful malbela = ugly
amiko = friend malamiko = enemy
mala = opposite

66

pra-

: distant in time (usually in the past) or relationship.
arbaro = forest praarbaro = forest primeval
nepo = grandson pranepo = great-grandson
patro = father prapatroj = forefathers
praa = before the dawn of...

67

pseŭdo-

: false.
scienco = science pseŭdoscienco = pseudoscience
nomo = name pseŭdonomo = pseudonym

68

nov-

: has to do with newness.
edzino = wife nova edzino = new wife novedzino = bride.

69

dik-

: thick.
fingro = finger dika fingro = thick finger dikfingro = thumb

70

duon-

: half.
frato = brother duonfrato = half-brother

71

vic-

: second in rank, acting as regent for.
reĝo = king vicreĝo = viceroy
prezidento = president vicprezidento = vice-president
vico = line, place in line

72

ne-

: creates the negative (not, however, the opposite) of the root.
bona = good nebona = ungood malbona = bad

73

fuŝ-

: screwed up.
verki = to write (to compose fuŝverki = to make it come
a work of art) out all wrong
fuŝi = to screw up