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Flashcards in Ethnicity and crime Deck (49)
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whats percentage of ethnic groups make up the UK population?

white - 87%
black - 3%
asian - 7%
other - 3%


what percentage of ethnic groups make up the convictions in the UK?

white - 73%
black - 8%
asian - 5%
other - 14%


what is the average custodial sentence for different ethnic groups in the UK in months?

white - 15.9
black - 23.4
asian - 22.4
other - n/a


what can be suggested from the statistics about ethnic differences and crime?

- black are the minority of the total pop but have the longest custodial sentences
- white have the highest amount of convictions but lowest custodial sentence rate


what don't statistics tell us?

whether p's from one group are more likely to commit an offence in the first place


what are 2 alternative sources of statistics?

- victim surveys (p's asked if they've been a victim and to what)
- self report studies (p's asked if they've committed a crime)


what stats are there about black p's involvement with the police?

- 7x more likely to be stop and searched
- 4x more likely to experience police force
- 3.5x more likely to be arrested
- 5x more likely to be imprisoned


what are the findings of victim surveys?

- black p's are over represented among offenders
- shows a lot of crime is intra-ethnic


what are the findings of self report studies?

- blacks and whites had similar rates of offending
- asians had a much lower rate of offending


what are the strengths of self report studies and victim surveys?

- looks at unreported crime
- avoids police bias
- anonymous: more likely to be truthful
- surveys can be reused (reliable)
- preferred by positivists


what are the weaknesses of self report studies and victim surveys?

- rely on p's being truthful
- self reports might use deception, unethical
- aren't live, out of date, low temporal validity
- p's can interpret questions differently


according to Bowling and Phillips what are the stages of the CJS?

1. stop and search
2. arrests and cautions
3. prosecution and trials
4. convictions
5. prison


what are the differences in ethnicities with stop and search?

- more likely ethnic minorities
- black 7x more likely than white
- asian over 2x as likely as white
- asians more likely to be stopped under terrorism act than white
- blacks more often involved in taser incidents


what can cause ethnic differences in stop and search?

- selective policing
- demographic factors
- police racism
- stereotypes fueled by media


what are the ethnic differences in arrests and cautions?

- 3x more blacks than white (2014)
- black and asian less likely to receive cautions
- black / asian more likely to get custodial sentence
- EM more likely to deny charges and request legal advice
- white criminality is invisible compared to EM criminality
- EM more likely to commit crimes that raise visibility to authority


what ethnic differences are there in prosecution and trial?

- CPS more likely to drop cases against EM
- when EM cases go ahead, EM more likely to elect for trial in front of a jury
- jury's are normal people
- less chance of institutional racism


what are the ethnic differences in convictions and sentencing?

- asian / black defendants less likely found guilty
- when found guilty they serve longer sentences
- usually 4+ years


what is the ethnic differences in prison?

- 1/4 of prison pop is EM (2014)
- black 4x more likely to be in jail than white

among british nationals in jail:
- 5.5 per 1000 black
- 1.6 per 1000 asian
- 1.4 per 1000 whites


what was ethnic differences and crime like in 1970's?

general agreement that EM had lower crime rates than white


what was ethnic differences and crime like in mid 1970's?

- increased conflict between police and african carribeans
- higher arrest rates for street crime
- increased black criminality


what was ethnic differences and crime like in the 1990's?

- crime by asian is viewed as a problem
- concerns about growth of 'asian gangs'
- 9/11 confirmed fears of asians specifically muslims as the enemy within


what are the 2 explanations for ethnic differences in stats?

- left realism
- neo marxism


how do left realists describe ethnic differences in stats?

lea and young:
- black crime for some offences is higher than white
- due to marginalisation and discrimination
- relative deprivation = legitimate routes blocked
- these create subcultures mainly in young black males which increases street crimes


how does left realist approaches explain utilitarian crimes?

- p's lack access to materials
- commit crime for monetry gain
- gain material illegitimately


how does the left realist approach explain non utilitarian crimes?

To gain acceptance / reinstate masculinity / status they lose from society, they re gain it in subcultures through crime


what do Lea and Young say about police and racism?

- police often act in racist ways
- this results in unjustified criminalisation
- however this can't fully explain ethnic differences as 90% of crimes are reported by public
- stats show real differences caused by real differences in marginalisation and relative deprivation


what does the neo marxist Gilroy say about stats?

- do not reflect reality
- they're socially constructed to stereotype EM as criminal


what does neo marxist Gilroy say about black criminality

- myth of black criminality
- created by racist stereotypes
- police and CJS act on these stereotypes
- EM then make up more stats and seem more criminal


according to neo marxist Gilroy what was black crimes caused by?

- 1970's: black crime was political action
- represented a culture of resistance to inequality and oppression
- EM crime is political resistance against racism
- resistance originated against British imperialism
- EM carry the weight of historical violence e.g slavery


what happened when EM experiences racism in Britain according to neo marxist Gilroy?

- they adopted an anti-imperialistic form of resistance to defend them self
- their political struggle was criminalised by British state