Flashcards in Subcultrual Theories - Three Subcultures Deck (11)
Who came up with the 3 subcultures theory?
Cloward and ohlin
What did cloward and ohlin say was the cause of crime?
lack of legitimate opportunities
How does cloward and ohlin differ from Cohen’s theory?
says there are a number of responses to status frustration
What does cloward and ohlin try to explain?
- Why some subcultures resort to violence and vandalism
- whilst some resort to economic crime or illegal drug use
What is the key reason for different responses?
- unequal access to legitimate opportunities
- unequal access to illegitimate opportunities
- different opportunities for young p’s to learn criminal skills and have criminal careers
What are the 3 subcultures?
What is a criminal subculture?
- young p’s work way up in criminal hierarchy
- arise in areas w/ an established hierarchy of successful crime careers
- provide young p’s with training and role models
- young p’s have opportunities to climb criminal ladder
What is conflict subcultures?
- no local criminal subculture
- territorial groups exist to recruit young p’s in area
- these engage in violence to achieve status and respect
What is retreatist subcultures?
- p’s have no opportunities to engage in either criminal or conflict subcultures
- ‘double failure’
- retreat into alcohol or drugs
- spend their time with others who drop out of society
What’s a strengths of cloward and ohlin?
- provides and explanation to why some subcultures focus on non utilitarian crime while others focus on utilitarian
- in 1960’s ohlin was asked to develop crime policy in USA