Subcultrual Theories - Three Subcultures Flashcards Preview

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Who came up with the 3 subcultures theory?

Cloward and ohlin


What did cloward and ohlin say was the cause of crime?

lack of legitimate opportunities


How does cloward and ohlin differ from Cohen’s theory?

says there are a number of responses to status frustration


What does cloward and ohlin try to explain?

- Why some subcultures resort to violence and vandalism
- whilst some resort to economic crime or illegal drug use


What is the key reason for different responses?

- unequal access to legitimate opportunities
- unequal access to illegitimate opportunities
- different opportunities for young p’s to learn criminal skills and have criminal careers


What are the 3 subcultures?

- criminal
- conflict
- retreatist


What is a criminal subculture?

- young p’s work way up in criminal hierarchy
- arise in areas w/ an established hierarchy of successful crime careers
- provide young p’s with training and role models
- young p’s have opportunities to climb criminal ladder


What is conflict subcultures?

- no local criminal subculture
- territorial groups exist to recruit young p’s in area
- these engage in violence to achieve status and respect


What is retreatist subcultures?

- p’s have no opportunities to engage in either criminal or conflict subcultures
- ‘double failure’
- retreat into alcohol or drugs
- spend their time with others who drop out of society


What’s a strengths of cloward and ohlin?

- provides and explanation to why some subcultures focus on non utilitarian crime while others focus on utilitarian
- in 1960’s ohlin was asked to develop crime policy in USA


What are the weaknesses of cloward and ohlin’s theory?

- ignores crime of wealthy
- individuals drift in and out of delinquency therefore not committed to their subculture