White collar and Corporate crime Flashcards Preview

Sociology - Crime And Deviance > White collar and Corporate crime > Flashcards

Flashcards in White collar and Corporate crime Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1

Describe the Volkswagen scandal that supports white collar crime

- global scandal
- 11 mill vehicles rigged to cheat emissions test
- management/ CEO blamed w/c engineers
- lied to police and customers
- environmental damage

2

What is white collar crime?

- laws is selectively enforced so higher class are less likely to be prosecuted then w/c
- crimes of the powerful

3

What did Edwin Sutherland define white collar crime as?

“Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations”

4

What crimes did Edwin Sutherland class as white collar crime?

- Bribery
- tax evasion
- Fraud
- embezzlement
- breaking trade and safety regulations
- breaking food laws
- professional misconduct by laws

5

What is Bribery, tax evasion, fraud and embezzlement?

Bribery - corruptly giving or recording an item of value to influence a course of action

Tax evasion - effort to avoid paying taxes by illegal means

Fraud - deceiving another in order to obtain property or services

Embezzlement - stealing money that has been interested in peoples care

6

What 2 types of white collar crime did Sutherland state?

- occupational: committed by employees for person grain
- corporate: committed by employees for company

7

What’s an example of occupational and corporate crime?

Occupational: stealing from company/ customers

Corporate: mis selling products to increase company profit

8

What third type of white collar crime emerged?

- Croall added 3rd category
- organisational crime
-crimes cited by government or public organisation

9

How did Pearce and Tombs truly define corporate crime?

- not all corporate crime breaks the law
- therefore corporate crime is:

“Any illegal act that’s a result of deliberate decisions or culpable negligence by the legitimate business organisation and that is intended to benefit the business”

10

What does Pearce and Tombs say about corporate crime?

- more about who has the power to define an act a crime
- not about how harmful it is
- businesses can influence laws so actions are not criminalised

11

What are the 5 types of corporate crime?

- financial crimes
- crimes against consumer
- crimes against employee
- crimes against environment
- state corporate crime

12

What are examples of financial crimes?

- tax evasion
- bribery
- money laundering
- illegal accounting
- affects us as tax is for NHS

13

What are examples of crimes against consumer?

- false advertising
- selling unfit goods

France 2011:
- french gov recommended women w/ breast implants made by poly implant prothèse to have them removed
- filled w/ dangerous industrial silicon

14

What are some examples of crimes against employees?

- sexual discrimination
- racial discrimination
- violations of wage
- violation of health and safety laws

15

What are some examples of crimes against environment?

- illegal pollution of air, water and land
- toxic waste dumping

16

What are examples of state corporate crime?

- harms committed when government institutions and business cooperate to pursue goals
- private companies contracted to US military were accused of torture during the American occupation of Iraq

17

What is the abuse of trust in terms of crime?

Carrabine:

- p’s trust high status professionals w/ finances, health, security and Indian
- professionals positions give chance to abuse p’s trust
- accountants and lawyers have been employed by criminal organisations to launder criminal funds into legitimate businesses

- e.g KPMG admitted to criminal behaviour and played $456 for tax fraud

18

Describe how Harold shipman supports abuse of trust

- year 2000
- convicted of murdering 15 patients
- thought to have killed 200
- his status gave him the opportunity to do so

19

What are the 3 sociological explanations of corporate crime?

- strain theory
- differential association
- labelling theory

20

What is strain theory?

- m/c can achieve goals legitimately
- but they might still feel relatively deprived
- they want to have more success
- fuelled by greed and power to commit crime

21

What is differential association?

Sutherland:
- if p’s associate with other criminal they are more likely to commit crime
- aggressive management culture in business circles generate corporate crime

22

What is labelling theory?

Nelken
- corporate crime is not seen as ‘criminalI’
- corporate crime is similar to normal business practices
- powerful businesses employ accountants and lawyers to develop ‘techniques of neutralisation’
- this is to define their crimes as mistakes

Croall (2007)
- corporate crime does not intend to harm
- so they’re seen as less criminal than street crime e.g burglary
- e.g toxic waste dumping