Gender and crime Flashcards Preview

Sociology - Crime And Deviance > Gender and crime > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gender and crime Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

what are some official statistics about gender and crime?

- in most countries men commit more crime than females

England and wales (2014):
- men accounted for 3/4 of all p's convicted
- 85% of those convicted for indictable charges and 95% of prisioners

2

what is the likeliness of men to do certain things?

60x more likely of sex offences
14x more likely of robbery
13x more likely of possession of a weapon
8x more likely of violence

3

what is the most common offence among women?

- theft from shops
- 1/3 of women in prison are there for theft and handling stolen goods

4

what does the concept chivalry mean?

men are socialised to be softer and more protective towards females and harder on other males

5

what was argued about the chivalry thesis?

Pollack (1950)
- women are treated in a paternalistic way by police
- so they're treated more leniently
- women are naturally more skilled than men at deceiving p's
- derived from women hiding menstruation due to traditional taboos

6

what does the chivalry thesis mean for women?

- they're seen as less guilty
- they're seen as more vulnerable and in need of protection
- men need to be more lenient against them

7

how do functionalists explain lower crime rates for women?

sex role theory:

- gender role socialisation = women adopt feminine characteristics
- e.g emotional, caring, less aggressive
- female values don't condemn crime in any way
- Parsons: child bearing gives girls a female role model to emphasis female characteristics

8

how does feminist Carlen (1998) explain the gender differences in crime?

class and gender deals:
- class deal: material goods that arise from payed work
- gender deal: accepting long term relationships for material and emotional support

- these deals aren't available to all women e,g unemployment / abusive relationships
- some choose crime to live

9

according to feminist Henderson how is gender differences in crime explained?

control theory:
- social control deters women from crime in 3 ways:
- control at home, public and work
- all these put pressure to conform
- they have more to lose than gain by breaking the law

10

what is control at home?

- domestic roles create restrictions on time/ movement
- reduced opportunities for crime
- attempting to reject domestic roles could = domestic violence
- teenage girls are more supervised = bedroom culture
- reduces their chance of getting into trouble

11

what is control in public?

- women controlled by threat/ fear of male violence
- 54% of women avoided going out after dark for fear of being victims of crime vs 14% of men

12

what is control at work?

- sexual harassment helps keep women 'in place'
- glass ceiling reduces opportunities to engage in crime

13

how could sex control theory explain male criminality?

- men socialised into masculine identities
- boys have more freedom
- exposed to more criminal opportunities
- turn to gangs when lack father figure (perverse intensive)

14

how could control theory explain male criminality?

- men dominate public space where most crime is committed
- face fewer controls
- unlike women, crime may enhance a mans reputation

15

whats a limitation of the control theory?

march of progress
- control of women has decreased
- there's been progress in women achieving greater freedom

16

what are weaknesses of class and gender deals?

- ignores non utilitarian crimes
- class and gender deals can also be applied to men
- can't apply to m/c women in stable relationships
- ignores increase in ladette culture

17

what stats support growing female criminality?

- men responsible for 11x more crimes than women (1957)
- men responsible for 3x more crime than women (2014)
- number of crimes by girls 10 - 17 went up to 25% in england and wales between 2004 and 2010
- increase in female arrests
- increase female convictions for violent crimes

18

what is the name of the explanation for increase in female criminality?

liberation thesis

19

describe the liberation thesis

Adler (1975):
- women become liberated from the control of patriarchal ideology
- their crimes will become as frequent and serious as mens

20

how does girls have more freedom increase female criminality?

- exposed to criminal opportunities
- more likely to fall into wrong group
- negative influence of social media
- adrenaline rush of something new
- peer pressure
- need to be able to defend themselves e.g carry knife

21

how has women adopting male work roles increased female criminality?

- more work = more freedom
- more exposed to corporate crime
- can be used as femme fatale
- taking revenge on men for patriarchy

22

what other reason does Denscombe (2001) give for increased female criminality?

- increased ladette culture
- young women adopt ladish behaviour
- identify themselves through binge drinking, gang culture, risk taking and peer related violence

23

what is the masculinity thesis?

Messerschmidt (1993):
- men turn to crime to assert masculinity when legitimate ways are blocked
- e.g breadwinner or stable job

24

what are the 2 types of masculinity?

hegemonic: competitive, strong, provider
subordinate: feminine, emotional

25

how does the construct of masculinity vary?

- takes places in different contexts w/ different methods
- depends on males access to power and resources
- more powerful males achieve masculinity differently to less powerful males

26

how would a business man achieve masculinity compared to a man with no power at work?

business man:
- financial manipulation at home
- drinking with other business men
- paying p's for silence
- sexual harassment of female assistants

man with now poer;
- domestic violence
- strong patriarchal father figure

27

what are the weaknesses of the masculinity thesis?

- ignores structural explanations e.g poverty
- idea of masculinity may very across age and social class
- ignores crimes of subordinate masculines

28

what has globalisation led to in the economy?

- a shift from a modern industrial society to a postmodern industrialised society
- heavy industry has declined

29

how has globalisation negatively affected men?

- decrease in traditional manual jobs
- w/c men used these to express masculinity and gain respect/ status

30

how has globalisation positively affected men?

- increase in service sector jobs e.g clubs, pubs
- this provides young w/c men with legal work and criminal opportunities
- e.g money laundering/ spiking drinks