Flashcards in Evolutionary psychology & Personality Deck (45)
Who was the first to offer a coherent evolutionary theory?
Jean Baptiste Lamarck (naturalist)
What was the Lamarkian suggestion of the complexifying force?
- tendency for organisms to become more complex, moving 'up' a ladder
What did Lamarck suggest about the adaptive force?
- more and more use of an organ gradually strengthens, develops and enlarges that organ
- predominant use/disuse is preserved in reproduction
What did Charles Darwin suggest about natural selection?
-natural selection --> variation, if useful is preserved, slow changes
- sexual selection main force in species with sexual reproduction--> males competition for mates e.g. Peacock's tail
- common descent--> common descents with chimps
What did Galton suggest in applying Darwinian Evolutionary thinking to humans' variability?
- cherished INNATE ABILITIES
What is evolutionary psychology?
- emphasis on adaptation--> genes trying to pass onto the next generation
- modularity, adaptation and gene-level selection
Who is Stephen Pinker?
- mind organised into modules or mental organs MIND NOT BRAIN
- different modules that are designed to attack different elements ie. survival
What did Pinker say about our brains and modernism?
- our brains are not wired to cope with our modern society
What did Malik say about Pinker's suggestions?
- said that the brain is 'wired up' to invent modernity but not cope with it is a bit of a stretch
What is David Buss' evolutionary perspective?
- Dora's sexual adventures
- personality linked to major classes of social relationships
- PERSONALITY DETECTING MECHANISMS
- CHEATING PERSONALITIES
What adaptations might one develop to stop being a victim of a psychopath?
- identify and protection e.g. suspiciousness
What is the Welfare Tradeoff ratio?
- how much weight you put on your own interests vs. others
What are relevant personality traits for WTR?
- narcissism --> more stylish, cleavage, cheating
- agreeableness --> empathy
What are coalitions?
-historically women's coaltions for mutual assistance in child rearing
- men's coaltions attack/defend to attain/protect group's resources (and womenn)
What are desirable qualities for coalitional alley?(for both sexes)
WOMAN>MEN: conscientiousness, socially perceptive, low sexually promiscuity
MEN> WOMAN:bravery, physical formidability, low athletically challenged
How is assessing enemies/rivals an adaptive problem?
- accurately assess your rivals strength and willingness to engage
What personality traits do we care about in our enemies?
ALL: PSYCHOPATHY, MACHIAVELLANISM
MEN: aggression, fearfulness, strength
WOMEN: Intelligence, attractiveness, gossiper
What do we want in kin relationships?
- provide resources, protection, offspring investment, social connection for coalitional concerns
What don't we want in kin relationships?
- poach resources, divert resources to others, offspring neglect, sexual unfaithfulness, abusive, social animosity.
What do we value in mates?
- dependable character, emotional stability and maturity
CONSTRAINTS: own mate value, sex ratio, arranged marriage
LINKS TO BIG 5
Why do we value agreeableness in our mates?
- trust, personal sacrifices, invest in mate and offspring
Why do we value conscientiousness in our mates?
- dependability, hardworking, reliability and capacity for enduring cmmitment
- low sexual infidelity, low impulsivity, low laziness, low mortality
Why do we value emotional stability in our mates?
- abusiveness, reliability, health
- low emotional stability: high mood swings, high dependency and high resource draining, socially anxious (coalitions)
What is the behavioural immune system?
- psychological mechanisms to detect potential presence of disease in immediate environment and to engage in behaviour that prevents contact with these objects and individuals
what are some behaviours that align with disease avoidance?
- ostracism, social distance
What are some processes that align with disease avoidance?
- prejudice, stereotyping, xenophobia, disgust, personality modifications
How did Murray & Schaller (2008) look at
- looked at 71 regions from which personality trait data was available (prevalence of 9 different disease causing agents)
- FOUND: dx prevalence was negatively correlated with female SOI scores (i.e. as dx prevalence goes up, sexuality goes down); men also negative but weaker
- negative correlation with E and dx prevalance
- negative correlation with E and dx prevalence
What did Galton say about prominent ppl?
- prominent ppl have prominent relatives
- the closer the kinship the likelier the relative is also prominent
What is an alternative conclusion to Galton's findings that prominent ppl have prominent families?
- that children of "prominent" families have better environments- better access to education, resources, better "connections"