Flashcards in Factor Analysis Deck (40)

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1

## Who invented factor analysis and why?

### -Spearman, as a way to uncover 'g' factor

2

## What is the definition of factor analysis?

### - an umbrella term to cover a variety of multivariate statistical techniques to uncover the latent dimensions from a set of observed attributes.

3

## What is factor analysis used for?

### - to condense a large group of observed attributes into a much smaller set of constructs (factors/components)

4

## The dimensions should be a linear combination of observed attributes. T/F

### - true, should be, although modern developments allow for non-linear combinations

5

## What allows for the dimensions/factors/combinations to be linear?

### - the observed attributes must be numerical or possess an underlying continuous structure.

6

## Is there a need to define causal independent/dependent variables in factor analysis?

###
- no, because FA is not assessing causal relationships

- attempts to maximise the attributes' explanatory power than predictive power.

7

## What are the major FA types?

###
- EFA (EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS)

- PCA (PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS)

- CFA (CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS)

8

## What does EFA attempt to do?

###
- IDENTIFYING A HIDDEN STRUCTURE/CONSTRUCT

- almost any construct you know in psychology was empirically investigated through this approach

9

## How does FA often violate the 'numerical rule' of linearity?

### - often use likert scales which are ORDINAL SCALES

10

## What does PCA attempt to do?

###
- the simplest type of EFA

- assumes ALL variance in the items can be explained by some hidden structure/construct.

ie. big assumption, therefore perhaps erroneous

11

## What does confirmatory factor analysis attempt to do?

###
- looking to CONFIRM an already hypothesised, theorised or empirically identified structure/construct.

- also might use when we are looking to replicate an already done study

12

## What is an item in FA?

### - observed element of an attribute e.g. question in a questionnaire

13

## What is factorability?

###
- the suitability of an items to be included in an FA model

- depends on numerical association between items --> items below 0.5 or above 0.9 need to be considered carefully

14

## What is Bartlett's test of sphericity?

### - tests whether the item correlation matrix is significantly different from a matrix with ZERO CORRELATIONS (testing the factorability of a dataset)

15

## What is simple structure?

### - refers to the situation where items form distinct groups based on the degree of their associations i.e. items form highly independent dimensions

16

## What do we need for a factor to be meaningful?

### - factors need to be related both in a QUALITATIVE (CONCEPTUAL) AND QUALITATIVE (NUMERICAL) SENSE

17

## What are orthogonal factors or components?

### - factors that are considered to be independent from each other e.g. trait theory, neuroticism and extraversion

18

## What are oblique factors/components?

### - considered to be related to a degree to each other e.g. the Gf and Gc are not constructed to be independent.

19

## What is factor loading?

### - the correlation between an item and a factor (usually >0.4 to be considered to belong to that factor.

20

## what is rotation in a geometric space?

### - the geometric transformation of the factors in order to generate a model that contains a SIMPLE STRUCTURE

21

## When is varimax rotation used?

### - it is used to rotate orthogonal (unrelated/independent) factors in such a way that maximises the variance each of them explains

22

## What is the Kaiser criterion?

### - retain any factor that has an eigenvalue >/= 1

23

## What is Cattell's scree plot rule

### - retain factors which do not form part of the 'elbow' --> i.e. that are on the steep slope

24

## What is the variance explain rule?

### - retain all factors that can collectively account for 80-90% of the total variance

25

## What is the Joliffe criterion?

### - retain all factors with eigenvalues greater than or equal to 0.70

26

## What is the comprehensibility rule?

### - retain all factors that are MEANINGFUL and CLEARLY interpretable within the context of a given study (final assessment rests on psychological knowledge- FA cannot name the factors for us)

27

## What can Cronbach's alpha be considered an index of?

###
- internal consistency reliability

- internal consistency validity

28

## By assessing parallel-forms reliability what else are we assessing?

###
- concurrent validity

- convergence validity

29

## What is inter-rater reliability closely related to?

### - content validity

30