Factor Analysis Flashcards Preview

Psyc 2014 > Factor Analysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Factor Analysis Deck (40)
Loading flashcards...
1

Who invented factor analysis and why?

-Spearman, as a way to uncover 'g' factor

2

What is the definition of factor analysis?

- an umbrella term to cover a variety of multivariate statistical techniques to uncover the latent dimensions from a set of observed attributes.

3

What is factor analysis used for?

- to condense a large group of observed attributes into a much smaller set of constructs (factors/components)

4

The dimensions should be a linear combination of observed attributes. T/F

- true, should be, although modern developments allow for non-linear combinations

5

What allows for the dimensions/factors/combinations to be linear?

- the observed attributes must be numerical or possess an underlying continuous structure.

6

Is there a need to define causal independent/dependent variables in factor analysis?

- no, because FA is not assessing causal relationships
- attempts to maximise the attributes' explanatory power than predictive power.

7

What are the major FA types?

- EFA (EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS)
- PCA (PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS)
- CFA (CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS)

8

What does EFA attempt to do?

- IDENTIFYING A HIDDEN STRUCTURE/CONSTRUCT
- almost any construct you know in psychology was empirically investigated through this approach

9

How does FA often violate the 'numerical rule' of linearity?

- often use likert scales which are ORDINAL SCALES

10

What does PCA attempt to do?

- the simplest type of EFA
- assumes ALL variance in the items can be explained by some hidden structure/construct.
ie. big assumption, therefore perhaps erroneous

11

What does confirmatory factor analysis attempt to do?

- looking to CONFIRM an already hypothesised, theorised or empirically identified structure/construct.
- also might use when we are looking to replicate an already done study

12

What is an item in FA?

- observed element of an attribute e.g. question in a questionnaire

13

What is factorability?

- the suitability of an items to be included in an FA model
- depends on numerical association between items --> items below 0.5 or above 0.9 need to be considered carefully

14

What is Bartlett's test of sphericity?

- tests whether the item correlation matrix is significantly different from a matrix with ZERO CORRELATIONS (testing the factorability of a dataset)

15

What is simple structure?

- refers to the situation where items form distinct groups based on the degree of their associations i.e. items form highly independent dimensions

16

What do we need for a factor to be meaningful?

- factors need to be related both in a QUALITATIVE (CONCEPTUAL) AND QUALITATIVE (NUMERICAL) SENSE

17

What are orthogonal factors or components?

- factors that are considered to be independent from each other e.g. trait theory, neuroticism and extraversion

18

What are oblique factors/components?

- considered to be related to a degree to each other e.g. the Gf and Gc are not constructed to be independent.

19

What is factor loading?

- the correlation between an item and a factor (usually >0.4 to be considered to belong to that factor.

20

what is rotation in a geometric space?

- the geometric transformation of the factors in order to generate a model that contains a SIMPLE STRUCTURE

21

When is varimax rotation used?

- it is used to rotate orthogonal (unrelated/independent) factors in such a way that maximises the variance each of them explains

22

What is the Kaiser criterion?

- retain any factor that has an eigenvalue >/= 1

23

What is Cattell's scree plot rule

- retain factors which do not form part of the 'elbow' --> i.e. that are on the steep slope

24

What is the variance explain rule?

- retain all factors that can collectively account for 80-90% of the total variance

25

What is the Joliffe criterion?

- retain all factors with eigenvalues greater than or equal to 0.70

26

What is the comprehensibility rule?

- retain all factors that are MEANINGFUL and CLEARLY interpretable within the context of a given study (final assessment rests on psychological knowledge- FA cannot name the factors for us)

27

What can Cronbach's alpha be considered an index of?

- internal consistency reliability
- internal consistency validity

28

By assessing parallel-forms reliability what else are we assessing?

- concurrent validity
- convergence validity

29

What is inter-rater reliability closely related to?

- content validity

30

What can test-retest reliability (measured over time) be used as an index of?

- external validity