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1

What is differential psychology?

- seeks to understand the psychological dimensions that apply for everyone yet allow for or create differences between individuals

2

What are the two areas of ID?

- STRUCTURAL MODEL (how?)
- PROCESS MODEL (WHY, WHERE, WHEN)

3

Why are psychological tests important?

- allow for INDIRECT assessment of hidden/latent psychological attributes

4

what are some problems with sampling?

- representativeness
- biasedness
- response/non-response/dropout/volunteers
- instability

5

What are some assumptions and limitations of psychological measurement?

- it cannot measure the whole person
- it assesses a single psychological element
- personality exists and is real (concepts vs. constructs)
- personality can be measured in similar BUT not identical ways to physical properties
- personality possesses a relative stability, or predictive variability

6

What is a scale?

- a set of scores on a test (e.g. IQ scales)

7

What is a nominal (categorical) scale?

- an attribute is nominated an arbitrary numerical value e.g. dichotomous scales (yes/no), polytomous scales (I mainly use internet for school 1, i mainly use internet for information 2)

8

What is an ordinal scale?

- things are ranked differently based on rank order, and a numerical value is assigned to each rank
- distances between ranks are meaningless e.g 1st, 2nd, 3rd
- can be balanced (neutral scale pt in middle) or unbalanced (no neutral pt or pt not in middle)

9

What are some common types of ordinal scales?

- social- distance scales (I would willingly admit members of the following races)
- rating scales, more of a qu (how important is attractiveness 1- imp, 2- slightly)
- Likert scales - 5 pt balanced scales that assess degrees of agreement
- Likert- type scales: anything other than 5 points

10

What transform or standardise?

- often the raw scores are not sufficient for response comparisons
- results measuring the same attribute from different scales
- generation of population norms (normative scores)
- standardisation of scales

11

What is the use of population norms?

- allows for a percentile ranking in a group
- records population attributes
- compare an individual's attributes to them

12

What are some cautions for using norms?

- sampling and sample size limitations
- sample type limitations
- distribution assumptions
- relative temporal instability.

13

What is content validity?

- the degree to which scores represent the content area (study domain) they are supposed to represent e.g. an exam
- scores should cover the whole or be unbiased

14

What are some issues with content validity?

- sampling bias, cluster bias
- systematic error
- ceiling/floor effects
- expert judges

15

What is criterion - related validity?

- degree to which a test correlates with one or more outcomes or parallel critera
TWO TYPES: Concurrent (present e.g. longer vs shorter) and predictive validity

16

What is construct validity?

- how well the operationalisation accurately reflects its construct

17

What is systematic error?

- biases that occur regularly

18

What is convergence validity?

- high levels of correlation between items that make up the same construct or related constructs

19

What is discriminant validity?

- low levels of correlation between two items that make up unrelated constructs e.g. neuroticism vs. psychoticism

20

What is external validity?

-consistency across samples, populations, settings, time-periods
e.g. ecological validity: degree to which a score reflects reality

21

What is internal validity?

- the degree of confidence on the nature of asymmetric (causal) relations between the measured constructs e.g. naturalistic (questionnaire designs) tend to have good EV but bad IV, experimental designs have good IV but bad EV

22

What did Norman Anderson say about validity?

- any validity type can be conceptually represented on a 2d space defined by the generality dimensions and focus of concern

23

What are generality dimensions?

- Internal (validity within a given sample)
- External (validity in other settings)

24

What are the focuses of concern?

- Outcome
- process

25

What is the distinct groups approach?

- assess construct validity by differentiating between the levels of a construct in dissimilar samples/groups e.g. levels of personality disorders btw clinically diagnosed and normals

26

What is the Multi trait/multi-method validation

- using multiple construct indicators via multiple methods ( can ask others to do this as well) e.g. to test tolerance: religious, racial, sexual assessment

27

What is reliability?

- the degree of consistency/stability of measurement scores across contexts or time
-absence of measurement fluctuations unaccounted by the measurements' scope
- degree of RANDOM ERROR in observed variability of measurement scores

28

What is classical test theory?

- ppl have a true score T
- measurements and ppl have errors E (errors assumed to be random)
- observed score (X)
X= T + E
in variance2 = variances 2 T + variances 2 E
reliability index (r) = variance T/Variance x

29

What are some issues with CTT?

- true scores have: temporal score instability & chance fluctuations
- randomness of (psychological) error
- systematic error (biasedness & validity)

30

What is additivity?

- adding together items to get a more compound index (assuming that things are completely independent from one another)
- THINGS INTERACT
- problem of multiplicity