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What is differential psychology?

- seeks to understand the psychological dimensions that apply for everyone yet allow for or create differences between individuals


What are the two areas of ID?



Why are psychological tests important?

- allow for INDIRECT assessment of hidden/latent psychological attributes


what are some problems with sampling?

- representativeness
- biasedness
- response/non-response/dropout/volunteers
- instability


What are some assumptions and limitations of psychological measurement?

- it cannot measure the whole person
- it assesses a single psychological element
- personality exists and is real (concepts vs. constructs)
- personality can be measured in similar BUT not identical ways to physical properties
- personality possesses a relative stability, or predictive variability


What is a scale?

- a set of scores on a test (e.g. IQ scales)


What is a nominal (categorical) scale?

- an attribute is nominated an arbitrary numerical value e.g. dichotomous scales (yes/no), polytomous scales (I mainly use internet for school 1, i mainly use internet for information 2)


What is an ordinal scale?

- things are ranked differently based on rank order, and a numerical value is assigned to each rank
- distances between ranks are meaningless e.g 1st, 2nd, 3rd
- can be balanced (neutral scale pt in middle) or unbalanced (no neutral pt or pt not in middle)


What are some common types of ordinal scales?

- social- distance scales (I would willingly admit members of the following races)
- rating scales, more of a qu (how important is attractiveness 1- imp, 2- slightly)
- Likert scales - 5 pt balanced scales that assess degrees of agreement
- Likert- type scales: anything other than 5 points


What transform or standardise?

- often the raw scores are not sufficient for response comparisons
- results measuring the same attribute from different scales
- generation of population norms (normative scores)
- standardisation of scales


What is the use of population norms?

- allows for a percentile ranking in a group
- records population attributes
- compare an individual's attributes to them


What are some cautions for using norms?

- sampling and sample size limitations
- sample type limitations
- distribution assumptions
- relative temporal instability.


What is content validity?

- the degree to which scores represent the content area (study domain) they are supposed to represent e.g. an exam
- scores should cover the whole or be unbiased


What are some issues with content validity?

- sampling bias, cluster bias
- systematic error
- ceiling/floor effects
- expert judges


What is criterion - related validity?

- degree to which a test correlates with one or more outcomes or parallel critera
TWO TYPES: Concurrent (present e.g. longer vs shorter) and predictive validity


What is construct validity?

- how well the operationalisation accurately reflects its construct


What is systematic error?

- biases that occur regularly


What is convergence validity?

- high levels of correlation between items that make up the same construct or related constructs


What is discriminant validity?

- low levels of correlation between two items that make up unrelated constructs e.g. neuroticism vs. psychoticism


What is external validity?

-consistency across samples, populations, settings, time-periods
e.g. ecological validity: degree to which a score reflects reality


What is internal validity?

- the degree of confidence on the nature of asymmetric (causal) relations between the measured constructs e.g. naturalistic (questionnaire designs) tend to have good EV but bad IV, experimental designs have good IV but bad EV


What did Norman Anderson say about validity?

- any validity type can be conceptually represented on a 2d space defined by the generality dimensions and focus of concern


What are generality dimensions?

- Internal (validity within a given sample)
- External (validity in other settings)


What are the focuses of concern?

- Outcome
- process


What is the distinct groups approach?

- assess construct validity by differentiating between the levels of a construct in dissimilar samples/groups e.g. levels of personality disorders btw clinically diagnosed and normals


What is the Multi trait/multi-method validation

- using multiple construct indicators via multiple methods ( can ask others to do this as well) e.g. to test tolerance: religious, racial, sexual assessment


What is reliability?

- the degree of consistency/stability of measurement scores across contexts or time
-absence of measurement fluctuations unaccounted by the measurements' scope
- degree of RANDOM ERROR in observed variability of measurement scores


What is classical test theory?

- ppl have a true score T
- measurements and ppl have errors E (errors assumed to be random)
- observed score (X)
X= T + E
in variance2 = variances 2 T + variances 2 E
reliability index (r) = variance T/Variance x


What are some issues with CTT?

- true scores have: temporal score instability & chance fluctuations
- randomness of (psychological) error
- systematic error (biasedness & validity)


What is additivity?

- adding together items to get a more compound index (assuming that things are completely independent from one another)
- problem of multiplicity