Bandura: Self cognitive and self -efficacy theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bandura: Self cognitive and self -efficacy theory Deck (23)
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1

How did Bandura's model of social cognition differ from skinner's?

- interaction between behaviour, cognition and environment COGNITION MOST IMPORTANT
- behaviours can be LEARNED by observing
- reinforcement can be INDIRECT
- reinforcement does not occur without prior cognition, learning is cognitively mediated and not inevitable of the environment alone
- a self-system that acts upon the environment and behaviour

2

What is vicarious learning?

- much of our behaviour is shaped through the observation of others

3

What are some assumptions of Bandura's social cognitive theory?

-VICARIOUS LEARNING
- COGNITION
- RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM (reciprocal interaction btw personal factors, environment and behaviour)--> prior learning leads to mastery (efficacy) and current intepretations to interact to regulate behaviour

4

What is Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism?

- B (BEHAVIOUR)
- E (ENVIRONMENT)
- P (PERSON)

5

What are factors that determine whether we will learn from a model?

1. characteristics of the model i.e. most likely to be high status individuals
2. characteristics of the observer i.e. children, novices
3. consequences of the behaviour i.e. greater value we place on the behaviour, more likely we'll learn it

6

What is the 4 step model of observational learning?

1. ATTEND
2. REMEMBER
3. REPRODUCE
4. MOTIVATION because of reinforcement
To demonstrate that observational learning has occurred, the imitated action must consist of a newly organise pattern of behavioural responses not previously in the observer's repertoire

7

How did Bandura demonstrate observational modeling?

- aggression modeling in children

8

What did Paik & Comstock show about whether aggression is socially learnt?

- did a meta- analysis: found 10 out of 100 viewers would be affected by violence they see on tv or film.

9

What did Bandura & McDonald (1969) show about social modeling in children (morality)?

- 5-11 yr olds at high and low levels of moral judgment showed significant change when exposed to adult models --> change persistent when models no longer present

10

What was Bandura's view of human agency?

- ppl are self-organizing, self-regulating, proactive organisms that aren't just a product of their external environment

11

How did Bandura extend the humanist's construct of 'self'?

- self-system consisting of perception, evaluation and regulation of behaviour.
'SELF-SYSTEM' lies at the centre of causal processes

12

What is self-efficacy?

- beliefs in one's ability to organise and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments
- appraisal of one's capabilities and the demands of the environment are key determinants

13

How did Bandura suggest self-efficacy was a component of personality?

- because of its huge influence on in shaping various psychologica phenomena

14

What are four principles of self-efficacy?

1. mastery experiences
2. social persuasion
3. vicarious experiences
4. physical and emotional experiences
THE FOUR SOURCES MAY HAVE A DIFFERENT VALUE/WT FOR DIFFERENT PPL

15

What are different sources of weighting?

- from previous experience
- from peers and what they had to say about our success

16

What did high perceived self-efficacy ppl show?

showed greater:
- resourcefulness
- strategic solutions
- effectiveness in managing their environment

17

What did low perceived self- efficacy ppl show?

- avoidance of difficult tasks
- slower to recover self-efficacy from failures
- easily fall victim to stress and depression

18

What did student's high in self- efficacy show (with high or average cognitive ability)?

- better time management
- less likely to reject correct solutions prematurely
- more persistent

19

What did Dinther, Dochy & Segers (2011) show are the best sources of self efficacy?

- enactive mastery or practical experiences
- but must be well-structured, authentic and supervised.

20

What did Caprara, Regalia & Bandura show in relation to self-efficacy and violence?

- perceived self-efficacy reduced peer pressures for activities in violent behaviour

21

What did Benight & Bandura (2004) show about coping self-efficacy?

- that ppl who believe they can overcome their traumatisation take control in mending their lives

22

What did Bandura suggest about fortuitous events as determinants of personality?

- minor events may have an enduring impact on the course of our lives
- he argues that Social Cognitive Theory can explain what makes these fortuitous events into a long-lasting event

23

Does Bandura's model have high refutability?
Human agency? Causality?

- yes
- self-regulation as well as external forces
- primarily causal: via the concept of reciprocal determinism, but also aspects of goals
- emphasis on idiographic experiences within a nomothetic framework