Flashcards in Bandura: Self cognitive and self -efficacy theory Deck (23)
How did Bandura's model of social cognition differ from skinner's?
- interaction between behaviour, cognition and environment COGNITION MOST IMPORTANT
- behaviours can be LEARNED by observing
- reinforcement can be INDIRECT
- reinforcement does not occur without prior cognition, learning is cognitively mediated and not inevitable of the environment alone
- a self-system that acts upon the environment and behaviour
What is vicarious learning?
- much of our behaviour is shaped through the observation of others
What are some assumptions of Bandura's social cognitive theory?
- RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM (reciprocal interaction btw personal factors, environment and behaviour)--> prior learning leads to mastery (efficacy) and current intepretations to interact to regulate behaviour
What is Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism?
- B (BEHAVIOUR)
- E (ENVIRONMENT)
- P (PERSON)
What are factors that determine whether we will learn from a model?
1. characteristics of the model i.e. most likely to be high status individuals
2. characteristics of the observer i.e. children, novices
3. consequences of the behaviour i.e. greater value we place on the behaviour, more likely we'll learn it
What is the 4 step model of observational learning?
4. MOTIVATION because of reinforcement
To demonstrate that observational learning has occurred, the imitated action must consist of a newly organise pattern of behavioural responses not previously in the observer's repertoire
How did Bandura demonstrate observational modeling?
- aggression modeling in children
What did Paik & Comstock show about whether aggression is socially learnt?
- did a meta- analysis: found 10 out of 100 viewers would be affected by violence they see on tv or film.
What did Bandura & McDonald (1969) show about social modeling in children (morality)?
- 5-11 yr olds at high and low levels of moral judgment showed significant change when exposed to adult models --> change persistent when models no longer present
What was Bandura's view of human agency?
- ppl are self-organizing, self-regulating, proactive organisms that aren't just a product of their external environment
How did Bandura extend the humanist's construct of 'self'?
- self-system consisting of perception, evaluation and regulation of behaviour.
'SELF-SYSTEM' lies at the centre of causal processes
What is self-efficacy?
- beliefs in one's ability to organise and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments
- appraisal of one's capabilities and the demands of the environment are key determinants
How did Bandura suggest self-efficacy was a component of personality?
- because of its huge influence on in shaping various psychologica phenomena
What are four principles of self-efficacy?
1. mastery experiences
2. social persuasion
3. vicarious experiences
4. physical and emotional experiences
THE FOUR SOURCES MAY HAVE A DIFFERENT VALUE/WT FOR DIFFERENT PPL
What are different sources of weighting?
- from previous experience
- from peers and what they had to say about our success
What did high perceived self-efficacy ppl show?
- strategic solutions
- effectiveness in managing their environment
What did low perceived self- efficacy ppl show?
- avoidance of difficult tasks
- slower to recover self-efficacy from failures
- easily fall victim to stress and depression
What did student's high in self- efficacy show (with high or average cognitive ability)?
- better time management
- less likely to reject correct solutions prematurely
- more persistent
What did Dinther, Dochy & Segers (2011) show are the best sources of self efficacy?
- enactive mastery or practical experiences
- but must be well-structured, authentic and supervised.
What did Caprara, Regalia & Bandura show in relation to self-efficacy and violence?
- perceived self-efficacy reduced peer pressures for activities in violent behaviour
What did Benight & Bandura (2004) show about coping self-efficacy?
- that ppl who believe they can overcome their traumatisation take control in mending their lives
What did Bandura suggest about fortuitous events as determinants of personality?
- minor events may have an enduring impact on the course of our lives
- he argues that Social Cognitive Theory can explain what makes these fortuitous events into a long-lasting event