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What are the two research types of emotional intelligence?

- trait emotional intelligence (Goleman's EI, Bar-On's EQ-I; Schutte's self-report scale)
- performance- based emotional intelligence (The Mayer- Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Scale).


What are characteristics of Trait EI?

- self-report
- high correlations with personality
- quick, easy, vastly out number ability models
- psychometrically sound
- can be faked easiloy


What are characteristics of Ability EI?

- expensive. time consuming
- few tests
- ability scales: right/wrong answers
- tend not to correlated with personality measures
- depends on knowledge so can't be faked.


What does Bar- On' test measure?

- intra-personal abilitieis
- inter-personal abilities
- adaptation
- stress- management
- general mood
(all self-report)


How does Daniel Goleman test emotional competence?

- four clusters: (on self other) self awareness, self - management, social awareness, social skills


What is a problem with emotional intelligence in relation to prior empirical evidence?

- items overlap with neuroticism and extraversion (high correlations)


What are the factors of the Mayer- Salovey- Caruso model?

Branch 1: emotion perception (understand others)
Branch 2: emotion assimilation(use emotions to faciliate thought)
Branch 3: emotional understanding (label emotion)
Branch 4: emotion management


What are some problems with EI ability testing?

-the problem of the correct answer
- all correlations with G


How are ability tests scored?

1. consensus scoring (depends on the group)
2. expert scoring
3. target scoring (whoever wrote the test scores)


What are some other approaches to Emotional intelligence?

- Paul Ekman's Work on FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
- Klaus Scherer's Work on acoustics of emotional expression (Vocal Affect Recognition)


What is the relationship between PERSONALITY and abilities measurement of EI?

- ppl who are AGREEABLE tend to be better in EMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT


What is the relationship between abilities measurement and Gf/Gc

- strongest relationship is between UNDERSTANDING and crystallized intelligence (MEDIUM TO LARGE)
- but all are positive manifolds


What did Lynn & Irving find in their meta-analysis on differences between men and women in intelligence?

- no differences for < 15 years but gradually men >females into adulthood.
- effect size d=0.3 (i.e. small advantage to males)


What are the sex differences in intelligence from a historical perspective?

- Terman & Wechsler girls > boys
- Spearman & Cattell:no sex differences
- Court, Jensen, MacKintosh: no sex differences (Raven's)
- Lynn & Irwing: males>females


Describe IQ differences in female and males

- males> females: 5 IQ points in Raven's Progressive Matrices (Flyn & Irving, 2004) (03.SD)


What is a reason for IQ differences?

- Progressive Matrices largely measures spatial abilities which men are superior in
- also convenience samples (e.g. men)


What are evolutionary perspectives on sex differences?

- "male- foraging" hypothesis
- the "range" hypothesis: seek out polygamous relations, larger environmental range- higher spatial abilities
- warfare


What are some explanations for sex differences as a cause of testosterone?

- route learning: testosterone levels in males (not females) positively correlated with male-biased route-learning strategies
- testosterone levels in males predicted performance in mental rotation tasks (i.e. spatial abilities)


What is the brain functioning hypothesis explanation for sex differences?

- tasks are solved more efficiently when solved in one section of the brain
- lateralisation (i.e. men use less glucose than women, more efficiently)


What is a problem with IQ and stereotypes?

- toy choice (early development of stereotypes)
- self-reported abilities (men tend to report higher intelligence than women)
- stereotype threat


What are some environmental explanations of IQ differences?

- toy choice
- subject choice
- males can explore more freely (different activities)


What are two specific differences in male/female abilities?

- males> females: 'g' factor, spatial ability
- females> males: spelling and lanugage (moderate)


Two sources of evidence that sex differences are environmental in origin

- toy choice (boys play with trucks: mechanical rotation; females: dolls- conversational)
- subject choice (less likely to chose maths/science bc masculine)
- activities (men can explore more freely)


What did Morton say about differences in intelligence across groups?

- research on ohysical measurements and intelligence suppoted norms of the time
- based on craniology
- large methodological flaws, which biases results (i.e. all Caucasians male, most Ethiopians female).


What were the basic premises of Jensen, Eysenck and the black-white differences in IQ?

1. there are genetic components to intelligence
2. there are mean differences between black and white populations
3. these differences are genetic rather than environment in origin


What did the Bell Curve (Murray & Herrstein) say

DISCUSSED:IQ predicts life success, is genetic, differences in race, group difference in IQ is genetic
IQ and race- iq differs between raes and is lower for immigrants--> have more children, more social problems and less successful
- accused of being Eugenicists/racists


What is a significant debate against Herrstein & Murray's claim that IQ predicts success in life?

- OTHER factors also predict success e.g. conscientiousness
-"Terman's termites" IQ>135 indicative of greater education, income etc; but no differences in SOCIAL INDICATORS E.G. alcoholism


What is a claim against H & M premise that IQ is genetic?

- yes, genetic but BELL CURVE is based on ASVAB which measures crystallized intelligence.


What is a cliam against H & M premise that group differences in IQ are genetic?

- not valid reasoning, are unrealted to the possbility of training or improvement


What were the general findings of Lynn and Vanhanen’s estimates for IQ differences across different countries,

- differences between countries have a genetic basis; differences in IQ CAUSE the differences in wealth between nations