Flashcards in Intelligence Deck (58)
What is Galton's concept of intelligence?
- 'HEREDITARY GENIUS'
-physical measurement of intelligence: sensory acuity, head size, strength, speed of reactions (this one we have kept)
- tests show little relationship to any external criteria
-LEGACY: scientific/empirical approach to human intelligence; statistical methods (INVENTED NORMAL CURVE, CORRELATION); study of nature vs. nurture.
What was the first intelligence testing? And what was it purpose?
- Stanford - Binet
- used to look at which children needed more help than others.
What was one of the practical OUTCOMES from the Stanford - Binet?
TASK:age level assigned to each task (youngest age at which a child of normal intelligence should be able to complete this task)
INDIVIDUAL: mental age assigned to the person (age level at which normal children in his sample can pass this task)
How did Henry Goddard use the Binet- Simon test?
- used to detect "feeble-minded" school children
- used in adult populations --> set up an island called 'Ellis Island' to stop immigrants coming into NYC (to stop ppl coming into NYC)
- stop them from reproducing (Eugenics movement)
- Kallikak family: A study in the Heredity of Feeble - Mindedness (1912)
- (Binet had mental age) --> Goddard had classification on "feeble-mindedness"
How were IQ tests used in the armed services?
- ARMY ALPHA: written material, required literacy
- ARMY BETA: apparently used visual tests that didn't require literacy
- literate ppl first administered Alpha,
- ppl that failed beta, individually tested.
What were some problems with the administration of mass army tests?
-resistance from Army personnel
- level of literacy differed amongst camps--> impossible to test all ppl on beta
- many were not tested further if they failed Alpha
- under huge cognitive load
What did Lewis Terman do in intelligence testing?
- revised and published Binet's test as the Stanford-Binet
- labelled it as "MEASUREMENT"
- became the standard against which OTHERS HAD TO BE VALIDATED
- introduced, "MENTAL AGE"
What was Terman's introduction into intelligence testing?
- age level at which the majority of "normal" children in the standardisation sample passed the test. e.g. you pass a test that most 12 yr olds can pass, but not that a 13 yr olds test, your mental age is 12.
What is a problem with mental age?
- hard to make comparisons across ppl of different ages e.g. a retarded 18 yr old and 7 yr old both have a mental age of 9, are they equally intelligent?
What was the solution to the problem of mental age being unable to make comparisons across ppl of different ages?
- RATIO IQ = mental age/chronological age X 100
What are some problems with ratio IQ?
- ratio IQ only works if mental age increases proportionally with chronological age
- difficult to say anything substantive about adults
PRACTICAL DECISION: cut off age 16
Who invented deviation IQ? And what is it?
- Wechsler "invented" deviation IQ.
DEVIATION IQ = HOW DIFFERENT YOU ARE (HOW MUCH YOU DEVIATE)FROM THE MEAN PERFORMANCE OF A COMPARISON GROUP
- related to the idea of norm-referenced testing used throughout psychology
- we judge a person's score in terms of how it compared to an appropriate STANDARDISATION SAMPLE
What is the importance of norm-referenced testing?
- a score may have different percentile rankings for each group, and THUS DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
What are some implications of IQ scores?
- IQ scores means the same thing regardless of the comparison group
- again, deviation means the same thing regardless of the comparison group
- gives the "appearance" of stability in IQ
- 100 was set as average to be consistent with the ratio IQ which was familiar.
What was Spearman's theory of intelligence?
- based on his observations, he proposed there was a GENERAL ENTITY that exists to explain this positive manifold, that it is INNATE
- each test is made up of 2 factors:
1.specific factor 's' (different for each test)
2. general factor 'g'
What observation did Spearman make about the psychometric correlations of intelligence?
- all tests of intelligence correlate positively with all others POSITIVE MANIFOLD
What is factor analysis?
- analysis of HOW MANY FACTORS parsimoniously explain the observed pattern of correlations
What were Spearman's laws according to 'g'
- law of positive manifold (all intelligence tests must correlate positively with one another)
- indifference of the indicator (bc everything correlates positively, it doesn't matter which one you use)
What are different indicators of variances in Spearman's scores on different intelligence tests?
- 'G' (ppl's general ability) - latent variable (presence is inferred)
- Spearman's 'S'
- 'E' (error)
What are different inferences about 'g'?
- 'g' isn't the same for all groups of tests (i.e. depends what the test is measuring)
- 'g' is the first principal component in a factor analysis of intelligence test scores --> g can be tilted in any direction by the tests chosen E.G. G FROM VOCAB/READING COMPREHENSION VS. G FROM MAZE-LEARNING/PATTERN RECOGNITION
What are some propositions about multiple factors in factor analysis?
1. there is something common underlying all tests (POSITIVE MANIFOLD)
2. whatever is 'causing' the correlations btw tests 1-3, is different to what is 'causing' correlations between tests 4-6.
3. 'eye-ball' factor analysis
What did Thurstone/s (1983) suggest about group factors of intelligence?
there are 7 PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES:
1. verbal meaning; 2. word fluency 3. reasoning 4. number 5. spatial relations 6. associate memory 7. perceptual speed
- 7 PMAS
- originally proposed they were unrelated (no 'g')
- later suggested it could be 'g' that is underlying these mental abilities
What legacy did Thurstone leave?
1. simple structure (in FA)
2. idea that there are multiple abilities that comprise intelligence.
What did Vernon (1950) suggest about group factors of intelligence?
2 main factors: v:ed (verbal/educational); k:m (spatial/mechanical)
- emphasis on 'g' --> MIDDLE GROUND BETWEEN SPEARMAN AND THURSTONE
What is Cattell's theory of intelligence?
- FLUID INTELLIGENCE: reasoning, ability to grasp different relationships; culture-free (no evidence in practice)
- CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: acquired knowledge & skills; almost always has a verbal element; Gc depends upon Gf.
PERFORMANCE ON A SINGLE TASK CAN (AND IS LIKELY TO) REQUIRE BOTH.
What is an example of Gf?
- Raven's Progressive Matrices
What is an example of Gc?
- general knowledge and vocabulary
How do we know that Gf and Gc are different?
- developmental trends are different:
- FLUID rises to young adulthood, then falls off in old age
- CRYSTALLIZED rises and plateaus, roughly speaking.
What was John Horn's extension of Gf/Gc?
- there are various Gf/Gc's, different speeds etc.
- i.e 10 group factors added