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1

What did Cattell's theory on personality and traits suggest?

PERSONALITY: characteristics of an individual that allow predictions of behaviour
TRAITS: relatively stable and long-lasting building blocks of personality -- predictive value

2

What did Cattell say are important factors in trait development?

- BOTH ENVIRONMENT AND GENETICS ARE IMPORTANT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY:
CONSTITUTIONAL TRAITS: genetically based
ENVIRONMENTAL-MOLD TRAITS: environmentally determined.

3

What were Cattell's different types of traits?

-ABILITY TRAITS
- TEMPERAMENT TRAITS
- DYNAMIC TRAITS
(ALSO SURFACE TRAUTS AND SOURCE TRAITS)

4

What are ability traits?

- relates to how well we deal with specific situations and how well we reach our goals e.g. intelligence

5

What are temperament traits?

- relates to styles we adopt when pursuing our goals; highly heritable e.g. intelligence

6

What are dynamic traits?

- relates to elements guided by motivation e.g. altruistic, competitive
INCLUDES: attitudes (express our particular interests), sentiments (aggregates of attitudes e.g. values), ergs (innate drives)

7

What is the dynamic lattice?

- the organised complexity and interrelation of dynamic traits.

8

What are the 6 stages of personality development?

- 0- 6: influenced by parents and siblings
- 6-14: slow independence
- 14-23: emotional disorders and delinquency
- 23-50: generally productive, career, marriage etc
- 50 - 65: development in response to physical, social and psychological changes
- 65 to death: adjustment to different kinds of losses e.g. death of a spouse.

9

What are surface traits?

- individual's overt behaviorus e.g. worry
- cluster together and have high correlations
- first order traits

10

What are source traits?

- major dimensons
- consist of constellations (clusters) of surface traits

11

What is Cattell's Specification Equation to predict indvidual behaviour in a given situation?

P = S1T1 + S2T2...

12

What is the lexical approach to personality? (i.e. the lexical hypothesis - proposed by Galton)

- if individual differences are important, they should be encoded in language through TRAIT DESCRIPTORS

13

What are the assumptions of the lexical hypothesis?

- Frequency of word use --> importance of trait
- NO. of synonyms--> importance of difference
- Cros-cultural presence--> universality of traits/importance

14

What were the core ideas of Cattell's theory of trait development?

ALLPORT'S 4508 TRAITS --> reduced to 171 through synonym elimination --> narrowed to 36 through experts' ratings --> surface traits

15

What were Cattell's sources of data?

L-DATA: (life record data)- behavioural records collected primarily from peer-ratings e.g. school records
Q-DATA:(questionnaire data)- psychometric self- report assessment
T-DATA: (test data)- objective tests e.g. psychological tests

16

What are some examples of Cattell's 16 PFS? (primary factors)?

- warmth
- reasoning
- emotional stability
- dominance
- liveliness
- sensitivity
- vigilance

17

What are some negatives of Cattell's theory?

- relative inability to replicate 16PF
- almost exclusively relies on FA and statistics (measurement in psychometrics needs to relate to the comprehensibility rule and rely on qualitative and quantitative factors)
- beyondism: suggests that the fittest should rule the world (evolutionary theory)

18

What are some positives of Cattell's theory?

- major contributions to personality and intelligence
- proposed the state-trait dichotomy
- his data gave rise to the 5FACTOR MODEL
- developed the first really viable psychometric assessment
- major contributions to Behavioural genetics and measurement e.g. MAVA

19

What are some possible psychometric reasons for the inability to replicate Cattell's 16PF

- rotation used (oblique vs. orthogonal)
- absence of simple structure (problem with convergence & discriminant validity)
- response invariance
- scaling
- low loadings (low correlations between surface & source traits cos all interrelated)

20

What was Fiske's (1949) approach to psychometrics?

- took 22 surface traits of Cattell's and couldn't replicate it

21

What were Norman and Tupes & Christal's (1958) approach to psychometrics based on Cattell's structure?

- took both Cattell and Fiske's facettes --> found 5 factors

22

What was Lewis Goldberg's evolution of the lexical taxonomy?

Trait- descriptors are versions of 5 major features of personality:
- love (agreeableness)
- work (conscientiousness)
- affect (emotional stability)
- power (surgency)
- intellect

23

What was Goldberg's assesment to create his 5 trait descriptors?

- used the Abridged Big 5- Dimensional Circumplex (a circular model of the personality domain, in which each pair comprises its own circle)
- the more symmetrical of a shape ppl make, the more healthy you are

24

What was Costa & McCrae's OCEAN model based on?

- used 16PF but cluster analysed it (not FA)
- developed the NEO personality inventory (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness)
- later added Agreeableness & Conscientiousness (added artificially)

25

What were the different parts of the OCEAN's NEO model?

- hierarchical factorial arrangement (5-pt likert scales)
- the personality dimensions are orthogonal (PCA, Varimax rotation)
- the NEO is probably the most validated personality arrangement and most commonly used

26

What does extraversion relate to?

(sociability)
- how much
facets (traits): gregarious, warmth, assertivenessness, excitement seeking, positive emotion
- observed behavioural correlates: prominence in social organizations
- heritability index: 0.36

27

What does neuroticism relate to?

(emotionality)
- relates to anxiety and distress
observed behavioural correlates: poor marital fning, impaired academic performance
heritability index: 0.31

28

What does agreeableness correlate to?

- maintaing positive relations with others
observed behavioural correlates: conflict resolution tactics, greater social support from others
heritability index: 0.28

29

What does conscientiousness relate to?

(responsibility)
- relates to will to achieve
Observed behavioural correlates: avoidance of risky behaviours, higher academic achievement
heritability index: 0.28

30

What does openness (to experience) relate to?

- relates to intelligences, will to experience social or existential experience
Observed behavioural correlates: greater engagement with existential challenges, artistic expression
Heritability index: 0.46