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Flashcards in Exam 1:1 Deck (68):
1

Cases

people afflicted

2

Rates

number of events in a given population over a given period of time or given point in time

3

Population at risk

those susceptible to particular disease or condition

4

Incidence rate

number of new health-related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk during a particular period of time, divided by total # in same population

5

Prevalence rate

number of new and old cases in a given period of time, divided by total # in that population

6

Attack rate

incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak, expressed as a percentage

7

Outbreak investigation

determine number of victims, construct an epidemic curve, calculate attack rate, determine when victims became sick, determine where victims became sick and plot on map, disease investigation interview, case definition for the disease, hypothesis for sources and transmission, lab test results and screening tool to identify exposed, list of prevention and control measures

8

Infectivity

ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in the host

9

Pathogenicity

capability of a communicable agent to cause disease in a susceptible host

10

Communicable disease model

agent, host, environment

11

Agent

cause of disease or health problem

12

Host

susceptible person or organism invaded by an infectious agent

13

Environment

factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission

14

Chain of infection

pathogen-reservoir-portal of exit-transmission-portal of entry-establishment of infection in new host

15

Prevention and control efforts

focus on breaking the chain of infection

16

Pathogen

disease causing agent (virus, bacterium, etc.)

17

Prevention or control of a pathogen

pasteurization, chlorination, antibiotics, antivirals, etc.

18

Reservoir

favorable environment for infectious agent to live and grow (human, animal, etc.)

19

Prevention or control of a reservoir

isolation, surveillance, quarantine, drug tx, etc.

20

Portal of exit

path by which agent leaves host (blood, respiratory system, digestive system, etc.)

21

Prevention or control of portal of exit

gowns, masks, hair nets, insect repellants

22

Mode of transmission

how pathogens are passed from reservoir to next host, direct-direct contact or droplet spread, indirect-airborne, vehicle borne (fomite)

23

Prevention or control of mode of transmission

isolation, handwashing, vector control, sexual abstinence, etc.

24

Portal of entry

where agent enters susceptible host (iv, oral, skin, respiratory, digestive system)

25

Prevention or control of portal of entry

masks, condoms, safety glasses, insect repellants, etc.

26

New host

susceptible to new infection being established

27

Prevention or control of new host

immunizations, health education, etc.

28

US leading causes of death

heart disease, stroke, cancer

29

Primary prevention

forestall onset of illness or injury during prepathogenesis period

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Secondary prevention

early diagnosis and prompt treatment before disease becomes advanced and disability severe

31

Tertiary prevention

aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis, retrain, reeducate, rehabilitate

32

Thermal inversions

a natural phenomenon that occurs in mountain valleys where warm air above holds in cold air near the valley floor, acts as a cap for pollution causing it to accumulate

33

Clean Air Act of 1963

fed authority to address interstate air pollution problems, emission standards, empowered EPA

34

Air Quality Index

measures 5 criteria pollutants, tells how clean or polluted air is and associated health effects

35

Point source water pollution

can be traced to a single source

36

Nonpoint source water pollution

occurs through runoff, seepage, or falling pollutants into water

37

Surface water

streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs

38

Groundwater

most lies in aquifers many feet below the surface

39

Salt water

97% or Earth's water, must be desalinized before use

40

Coagulation of drinking water

addition of a chemical such as alum to cause solids to attract to one another and form large particles

41

Flocculation of drinking water

water is allowed to stand so that particles settle to the bottom

42

Filtration of drinking water

water is passed through sand or charcoal filters

43

Disinfection of drinking water

addition of chlorine or ozone to kill microbes, some add fluoride which assists in killing microbes and leads to improvements in dental health

44

Primary wastewater treatment

mechanical process, involves the separation of liquids and solids, screens remove large objects, communitor grinds up solids into uniform pieces, settling ponds or sediment tanks allow sludge to settle to the bottom and scum to form on top

45

Secondary wastewater treatment

biological process, promotes aerobic bacterial growth, trickling filters sprinkling water over rocks to aerate, activated sludge agitation or stirring of water in order to aerate

46

Tertiary wastewater treatment

optional process, filtration with sand or charcoal filters, measurement of nitrogen, ammonia, coliform, phosphorus, CO2, oxygen, turbidity-total suspended solids, disinfection using chlorine, discharge into surface water

47

Clean Water Act

first comprehensive federal water quality law, aims to make all rivers and lakes swimable and fishable, reduce discharge of contaminants into water supply, reduce nonpoint source runoff

48

Safe Drinking Water Act

EPA set maximum contaminant levels for over 140 pollutants and maintains a list of unregulated contaminants, MCLs categorized

49

Maximum contaminant levels

category 1-known health hazards and carcinogens, category2-possible hazards and carcinogens, category 3- insufficient or no known carcinogens

50

Foodborne disease outbreaks

two or more cases of similar illness resulting from ingestion of food

51

Common causes of foodborne disease

bacterial pathogens, viral pathogens (Hepatitis A)

52

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

1976, strict controls over treatment, storage, and disposal of solid and hazardous waste

53

Managing Solid Waste

source reduction (preferred), reuse and recycling, disposal

54

Sanitary landfills

locations have to be suitable for the in-ground disposal of solid wastes, required transition from dumps to landfills

55

Landfills require

a layer of clay on the bottom or a plastic type lining to reduce leachates from entering ground water, fewer sites available, requires venting for methane gas

56

Combustion or incineration

involves the burning or combustion of solid wastes, waste to energy plants collect energy from burning, concerns-air quality, expense, some toxic ash produced

57

Deep well injection

pumping of liquid waste into wells below aquifer, 50% of hazardous waste disposed this way

58

Secured landfill

least expensive method, double-lined, above 100 year flood plain, pipes for monitoring, wells to test ground water, surface water testing

59

Recycling and neutralization

reusing hazardous waste to produce a usable product, detoxifying waste by adding or removing a substance (microbes to an oil spill or base to acidic waste)

60

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

1980, superfund, created a national priority list of sites to be cleaned up, government would make responsible parties pay for cleanups when possible, provided money to support the identification and cleanup of sites, supervised by EPA

61

Brownfields

contaminated abandoned properties where reuse is complicated by the presence of hazardous substances from prior use

62

Vectors

fleas, lice, ticks, etc., spread disease

63

Risk of disease

Incidence rate

64

Burden of disease

Prevalence rate

65

Fomite

Any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted.

66

What put our water treatment plant in violation?

Phosphorus, mostly from soaps and detergents

67

Landfill

trash not left exposed, covered daily, located where runoff doesn't go into groundwater

68

Leachates

toxins draining off