Exam 3.3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3.3 Deck (50):
1

Examples of Anabolic drugs

steroids, testosterone, human growth hormone

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Inhalants

psychoactive breathable chemicals, acute and chronic effects

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Examples of inhalants

paint solvents, motor fuels, cleaners, glues, aerosol sprays, paint thinner, butane, nitrous oxide

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Inhalants are mostly used by

young teens due to low cost and easy availability

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Primary prevention of drug abuse

aimed at those who have never used drugs, education in schools

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Secondary prevention of drug abuse

aimed at those who have used but are not chronic abusers

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Tertiary prevention of drug abuse

aimed at drug abuse treatment and aftercare, including relapse prevention

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Demand reduction

education to reduce demand for drugs; treatment to remove physical, emotional, and environmental conditions that contribute to drug dependency, aftercare; social marketing to influence behavior

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Supply reduction

public policy, law enforcement to control drug use, crime, prevent crime organizations, and protect neighborhoods

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Office of National Drug Control Policy

leads nation's anti-drug efforts, publishes annual report detailing national strategy and budget

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Dept of Health and Human Services

gets largest amount of drug budget, education, automatic protection and regulation, demand reduction emphasis, rapid diagnosis and intervention with treatment

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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

lead agency focused on providing services for those with substance abuse problems

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National Institute on Drug Abuse

lead federal research agency on drug abuse

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Department of Justice

addresses supply side of drug trade

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Department of Justice Agencies

DEA, FBI, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

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Dept of Homeland Security (DHS)

prevention and control of drug trafficking

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Agencies within Dept of Homeland Security

US Coast Guard, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Customs Border Patrol, Counternarcotics Enforcement

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Dept of Veteran Affairs

treatment of drug-related health problems of veterans

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Dept of Defense

assists foreign allies to control the production of illegal drugs

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Dept of Education

primary prevention or demand reduction, programs for drug-free schools

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Health care delivery pre-1870

far behind Great Britain and Europe for both care and education, not grounded in science until about 1870 (germ theory), education provided through apprenticeships, treatment in home and 1st party payment, hospitals only in cities and seaports

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Health care delivery - 1960s

late 1950s had overall shortage of quality care, increased interest in health insurance, third-party payment system became standard

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Third party payment system

caused the cost of health care to rise in response to the disconnect between patient and medical care costs

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Medicare and Medicaid

1965, government insurance for seniors and poor

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Health care delivery - 1970s

Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974, aimed at comprehensive federal planning for healthcare

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Health care delivery - 1980s

Reagan and Congress repealed the NHPRD Act of 1974 which eliminated health system agencies, deregulation of health care delivery, proliferation of new medical technology

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Health care delivery - 1990s

American Health Security Act of 1993 (Clinton) failed to pass, managed care became dominant, US health care bill (1996) $1 trillion, creation of CHIP (1997)

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Health care delivery in the 21st century

medicare part D created for expansion to cover prescriptions, costs in 2010 were $2.6 trillion, costs outpacing inflation for past few decades, Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) passed in 2010

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Spectrum of healthcare delivery

population-based public health practice, medical practice, long-term practice, end-of-life practice

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Population-based public health practice

interventions aimed at disease prevention and health promotion, health education is a major component, helps to empower and motivate, mostly occurs in governmental health agencies

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Medical practice

primary, secondary, and tertiary care

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Primary medical care

clinical preventive services, first-contact treatment, ongoing care for common conditions

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Secondary medical care

specialized attention and ongoing management

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Tertiary medical care

highly specialized and technologically sophisticated medical and surgical care, for unusual and complex conditions

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Restorative care

provided after surgery or other treatment, rehab care, therapy, home care, inpatient and outpatient units, nursing homes, other settings

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Long-term care

help with chronic illnesses and disabilities, time-intensive skilled care to basic daily tasks, nursing homes and various settings

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End of life practice

services provided shortly before death

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Hospice care

terminal diagnosis, variety of settings

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Types of health care providers

over 200 types categorized into 6 groups: independent providers, limited care providers, nurses, nonphysician practioners, allied health care professionals, community health professionals (public and voluntary)

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Independent providers

specialized education and legal authority to treat any health problem or disease

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Allopathic MD

4 years of med school and 3 to 5 years of residency in their specialty, focus on the provision of specific remedies or including drugs, medication, and surgical tx

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Osteopathic DO

same as MD, same as allopaths, yet might have a greater recognition of the reciprocal interrelationship between the structure and function of the body in providing tx

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Nonallopathic

complimentary and alternative medicine, natural products, mind-body medicine, manipulation, etc., used together with conventional medicine, therapy is considered complimentary, in place of considered alternative, chiropractors, acupuncturists, naturopaths, homeopaths, etc.

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Limited (or Restricted) Care Providers

advanced training in a health care specialty, provide care for a specific part of the body, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, audiologists, psychologists

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Licensed practical nurses

1-2 years of education in vocational program, pass licensure exam

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Registered nurses

complete accredited academic program, state licensure exam

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Advanced practice nurse

master of doctoral degrees

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Nonphysician practitioners

practice in many areas similar to physicians but do not have MD or DO degrees, training beyond RN, less than physician, nurse practitioners, midwives, physician assistants

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Allied health care professionals

assist, facilitate, and complement work of physicians and other health care specialists, education and training varies

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Categories of allied health care professionals

laboratory technologist/technician, therapeutic science practitioners, behavioral scientists, support services