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Flashcards in Exam 1:2 Deck (75):
1

What is a worldwide goal of the 21st century?

achievement of good health

2

Health

can mean different things to different people, a dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is multidimensional in nature, a resource for living, and results from a person's interactions with and adaptations to his or her environment

3

Community

A group of people who have common characteristics, can be defined by location, race, ethnicity, age, occupation, interest in particular problems or outcomes, or common bonds

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Community is characterized by

Membership, common symbol systems, shared values and norms, mutual influence, shared needs and commitment to meeting them, shared emotional connection

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Public health

actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the conditions in which people can be healthy can occur, the most inclusive term

6

Community health

health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve their health

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Population health

health status of people who are not organized; have no identity as a group

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Personal health

Individual actions and decision making that affect the health of an individual or his or her immediate family members or friends

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Role of community health

activities aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community, maintaining birth and death records, protecting food and water supply, etc.

10

Herd immunity

The resistance of a population to the spread of an infectious agent based on the immunity of a high proportion of individuals

11

Earliest civilizations

many community health practices went unrecorded, practices may have involved taboos, rites, and spiritual beliefs, archeological evidence of community health activities date back to 2000 BC

12

Ancient China

Emperor Shen Nung (2700 BC) originated drug therapy and acupuncture, incorporated theory of Yang (male principle) and Yin (female principle), an individual will have good health when these opposing forces are in harmony

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Ancient Northern India

evidence of bathrooms and sewers

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Ancient Crete

evidence of toilets, flushing systems, and sewers

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Ancient Sumarian clay tablet

evidence of prescription drugs

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Ancient Egypt

Middle Kingdom-evidence of water drainage, physicians kept detailed case histories of patients on papyri scrolls, the sick sought help at the temples (dual role of church and hospital), priest became a physician-priest

17

Imhotep (Egypt)

high priest, poet, vizier, architect, physician, etc., regarded by many as the true father of medicine, architect of the first pyramid, wrote extensive medical texts-most destroyed when the library at Alexandria was burned by Caesar, search for his tomb underway

18

What is believed by many to be the single greatest loss of knowledge in human history?

The loss of the library in Alexandria, played a role leading to the dark ages in the Western world

19

Ancient Babylon

developed a code of law (Hammurabi), somewhat humanitarian and tried to prevent defrauding the helpless, medical fees were spelled out on ability to pay, if patient suffered complications the doctor would be punished and may have his hands cut off

20

Ancient Israel

book of Leviticus provided guidelines for personal cleanliness, sanitation, disinfection of wells, isolation of disease, disposal of refuse, and the hygiene of maternity

21

Classical Greece

active in community sanitation, running water, supplemented local city wells with water supplies from mountains as far as 10 miles away

22

Hippocrates

466-377 BC, Greece, many medical writings that took a logical approach to medicine (opposed mystical approach), Hippocratic oath, father of medicine, health related to the balance of 4 humors, practice of bloodletting, disease caused by natural forces, prescriptions for fresh air, nature, rest, massage, baths, certain diets

23

The practice of bloodletting started by Hippocrates

killed many people throughout history, including George Washington

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Classical Rome

captured many Greek physicians upon conquering that country, incorporated many Greek practices, improved Greek engineering and built aqueducts and sewer systems, Christians built hospitals for the public as charitable organizations, physicians conducted dissections and autopsies, created medications, wrote various medical texts, public and private baths available to all (improved hygiene), physicians received special schooling, healthcare provided to the poor

25

Spiritual era of public health

Middle Ages (500-1500 AD), change in attitude about the body, rejection of the Greco/Roman admiration of the body, pursuit of the spiritual at the expense of the body, body is something that leads to sin and is to be ignored and hidden, disease viewed as a consequence of sinful living

26

Movements of People in the Middle Ages

Islamic practice of Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), Christian crusades against Muslims, Columbus and others to Americas, spread many diseases and led to large scale epidemics of cholera, smallpox, pulmonary anthrax, bubonic plague, typhoid, typhus, etc.

27

Renaissance and Exploration

1500-1700, rebirth of thinking about nature of the world and of humankind, more careful accounting of who was getting sick, belief that diseases were caused by environmental not spiritual factors, observed the sick, leading to a greater understanding of signs and symptoms of disease

28

Leonardo daVinci

scientist, inventor, mathematician, engineer, artist, produced numerous anatomical drawings based on dissection

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Fricastoro

spoke of disease being caused by invisible seeds that penetrate and multiply in the human body

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Galileo

invented the telescope, but also used two lenses to examine a small specimen in 1608, documented the first use of a microscope

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Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes

writings encouraged questioning of all "former truths" leading to the development of the scientific method

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Harvey

described his experiments and blood circulation

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Leeuwenhoek

described the red blood cell

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Kircher

connected microorganisms in blood with disease

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Eighteenth Century

industrial growth, cities overcrowded, water supplies inadequate and unsanitary, problems with trash, workplaces unsafe

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Variolation

involved inoculation with smallpox material, risky but George Washington ordered it for his troops during the Revolutionary War

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Edward Jenner

published his account of the first smallpox vaccination in 1796, overheard a milkmaid mention she could not get smallpox because she already had cowpox, inoculated a boy with pus from cowpox and 8 weeks later with smallpox, the boy did not get sick

38

Marine Hospital Service

formed in 1798, led to the eventual development of US Public Health Service

39

The nineteenth century

better agriculture lead to improved nutrition, laissez-faire approach to health, epidemic problems in major cities, many scientific discoveries

40

Pasteur

demonstrated pathogenesis, developed anthrax and rabies vaccines, developed pasteurization in milk and other liquids

41

Koch

discovered the bacilli for anthrax, cholera, and TB

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Joseph Lister

used the first antiseptics during surgery making surgery much safer

43

Germ Theory of Disease

established by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch

44

Shattuck report

1850, led to the institution of many public health measures

45

Leading causes of death in the twentieth century

communicable diseases

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Reform phase

1900-1920, 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act passed

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Great Depression and WWII phase

National Institutes of Health established-1930s, penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming-1928, wide usage 10 yrs later and in WWII

48

Postwar years

growth of health care facilities and providers, CDC established in 1946, WHO-1948, Salk Polio vaccine-1955

49

Period of Social Engineering

1960-1973, fed govt active in health matters, medicare/medicaid-1965, OSHA Act signed-1970, improved standards in health facilities, influx of fed dollars accelerated rate of increase of cost ot health care

50

Period of health promotion

1974-present, lifestyle-related diseases top causes of death, identification that premature death traceable to lifestyle and health behaviors, Healthy People publication established

51

World Health Organization

international governmental health organization, objective-attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, notable-helping to eradicate smallpox

52

Dept of Health and Human Services

responsible for protection of health and welfare of citizens

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Administration on Aging

carry out the provisions of the Older Americans Act of 1965

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Administration for Children and Families

provides direction and leadership for all federal programs for needy children and families (head start)

55

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

research on health care quality, costs, outcomes, and patient safety

56

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

serves public to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances

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Food and Drug Administration

protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation

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Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services

administers programs which provide health care coverage to about 87 million Americans

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Health Resources and Services Administration

provide health resources for medically underserved populations, works to build the health care workforce

60

Indian Health Services

goal to raise physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaskan Natives to the highest level

61

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

ensures up-to-date information and state-of-the-art practice is effectively used for the prevention and treatment of addictive and mental disorders

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National Institutes of Health

one of the world's foremost medical research centers and the federal focal point for medical research in the US

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

nation's premier health promotion, prevention, and preparedness agency and global leader in public health

64

Quasi-Governmental Health Organizations

National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, American Red Cross

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American Red Cross

provide relief to victims of natural disasters, liaison between members of armed forces and their families during emergencies

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Voluntary health agencies

raise money to fund programs and/or research, provide education, provide services to afflicted, American Cancer Society, American Heart Assoc., Lung Assoc., Diabetes Assoc., Arthritis Foundation

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Professional Health organizations

promote high standards of professional practice, American Medical Assoc., American Public Health Assoc.

68

Philanthropic Foundations

donate money for the good of humankind, fund programs and research on prevention, control, and treatment of many diseases

69

Social, Service, and Religious Organizations

many do not have health as a primary mission but make health-related contributions

70

Corporate Involvement in Community Health

biggest role-provision of health care benefits

71

Epidemiology

study of distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations

72

Epidemiologists

concerned with course of disease in a population, collect information about disease of a community

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Epidemic

unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior or event, in a particular population

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Endemic

disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course

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Pandemic

outbreak over wide geographic area