Exam 3.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3.2 Deck (50):
1

Mentally ill inmates

have difficulty obtaining parole due to discipline problems

2

Ohio's prison mental health system

is considered one of the best

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Threshold dose

the minimum amount required to produce a therapeutic or psychoactive effect

4

Effective dose

the dose needed to produce a desired effect

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Lethal dose

the amount that will cause death

6

Synergistic drug interaction

potentiating, effect of 2 drugs is greater than the sum of each drug (2+2=7)

7

Additive drug interaction

2+2=4

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Antagonistic drug interaction

complete or partial canceling effect, 2+2=0

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Independent drug interaction

drugs have no effect on one another

10

Risk factors

increase the probability of drug use

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Protective factors

decrease the probability of drug use

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Legal drugs (licit)

includes those that can be closely regulated, likely regulated, and not regulated, alcohol, nicotine, otc, prescription

13

Illegal drugs and controlled substances (illicit)

regulated by Controlled Substances Act of 1970, marijuana, stimulants, depressants, club drugs, designer drugs, anabolic drugs, inhalants

14

Alcohol

#1 drug problem in US

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Alcohol issues

binge, underage, problem drinkers

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Alcoholism

physical dependence, tolerance and withdrawal present, loss of control

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Cost of alcohol abuse

$220 billion

18

Blood alcohol concentration

percentage of concentration of alcohol in blood, .08% considered intoxication in most states

19

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-V)

identifies and describes mental disorders, provides diagnostic instructions for each, has significant implications for whether a treatment should be reimbursed by insurance

20

Nicotine

psychoactive and addictive drug found in cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and e-cigarettes, produces tolerance and withdrawal

21

Nicotine is the #1 drug in terms of

its direct impact on mortality and health of users

22

Environmental tobacco smoke

a human class A carcinogen (same as asbestos), aggravates asthma

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Harmful components of tobacco smoke

tar, CO, nicotine

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Impact of nicotine addiction

20.4% of HS seniors smoke, accounts for 443,000 deaths each year, accounts for loss of $193 billion

25

Synar Amendment

prohibits distribution of tobacco products to those under 18 years old

26

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (2009)

FDA has oversight over tobacco products

27

Over the Counter drugs

legal drugs other than alcohol and tobacco that can be purchased without a prescription, carefullly regulated by FDA, most provide symptomatic relief not a cure, subject to misuse and abuse

28

Prescription drugs

can be purchased only with a prescription, some people have serious side effects, regulated by FDA, over 4000 available, subject to misuse and abuse

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Concerns with prescription drugs include

dependence, adverse reactions, resistant pathogens, unintentional overdose

30

Controlled Substances Act of 1970

Schedule I-cannot be cultivated, manufactured, bought, sold, or used in US, no accepted medical uses, high potential for abuse; Schedule II-medical uses, scheduled based on potential for risk of dependence or abuse

31

Drug Enforcement Agency

responsible for enforcing Controlled Substances Act

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Illicit drug issues

drug trafficking and associated violence, crime, communicable disease, addiction, and detrimental community impacts, injection users are at high risk for bloodborne pathogens

33

Marijuana

derived from hemp plant, most abused illicit drug in US, produces tolerance but no withdrawal

34

Acute effects of marijuana use

reduced concentration, slowed reaction time, impaired short term memory, impaired judgment

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Chronic effects of marijuana use

damage to lungs, amotivational syndrome

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Other concerns with marijuana use

brings people in contact with those involved in illegal activities, often involves polydrug use

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Narcotics

numb the senses and reduce pain, high potential for abuse, produce tolerance and physical dependence

38

Synthetic narcotics

oxycontin and codiene

39

Opium and its derivatives

morphine and heroin, come from an oriental poppy plant

40

Concerns of narcotic abuse

drug trafficking and associated violence, crime, communicable disease, addiction, etc., bloodborne pathogens in injection users

41

Stimulants

drugs that increase the activity of the CNS, produce rapid tolerance and withdrawal

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Common types of stimulants

cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, ephedra

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Formication

the sensation that bugs are crawling under the skin

44

Hallucinogens

produce illusions, changes in perceptions, synesthesia, naturally derived and synthetic, produces tolerance but not withdrawal (some disagreement)

45

Common types of hallucinogens

LSD, mescaline (peyote), psilocybin (mushrooms)

46

Depressants

slow the CNS, may lower anxiety and inhibitions, produces tolerance and withdrawal, strong physical dependence

47

Common types of depressants

alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (xanax and valium), methaqualone

48

Club drugs and designer drugs

may have similar effects as other drugs but often have multiple effects that make them difficult to classify, often produced synthetically in labs

49

Examples of club and designer drugs

MDMA (ecstasy) is the most popular, rohypnol (date rape drug)

50

Anabolic drugs

protein-building, have some legitimate medical uses, sometimes abused by athletes and body builders, acute and chronic side effects