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61

bed rest also adds the reduction in gravitational forces with physiological impact including:

-change in fluid distribution
-reduced muscle activity
-change in body weight distribution
-aerobic deconditioning and all that impacts with oxygen transport/exchange

62

Gravity normally keeps fluid in:

body/legs

63

loss of Gravity allows fluid to shift to:

thorax and head

64

response to fluid shift -->

reduction in volume

65

What are examples of general health abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- weight gain or loss
- fatigue, weakness, malaise
- fever, chills
- sweats, night sweats

66

What are examples of skin abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- excessive dryness
- itching (pruritis)
- excessive bruising
- lesion or rash

67

What are examples of respiratory system abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- history of lung diseases
- chest pain with breathing
- wheezing or noisy breathing
- shortness of breath (how much activity)
- cough
- sputum (color, amount)
- hemoptysis (bloody sputum)
- medications

68

What are examples of cardiovascular system abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- heart or retro sterna pain
- palpations
- cyanosis (blue/purple) --> not enough exertion
- dyspraxia on exertion (amount of exertion)
- Orthoptera (shortness of breath laying down)
- edema
- history of heart murmur, HTN, CAD or anemia
- medications for cardiac disease

69

What are examples of peripheral vascular system abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- coldness, ,numbness, tingling of legs
- swelling of legs (time of day and activity)
- discoloration hands or feet
- varicose veins (causes poor venous return)
- intermittent claudication (arteries not pushing blood dismally properly)
- thrombophlebitis (inflammation of veins)
- ulcers
medications

70

What are examples of hematologic system abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- bleeding in skin or mucus membranes
- excessive bruising
-lymph node swelling
- blood transfusion and reactions
- medications

71

What are examples of endocrine system abnormalities that could be identified during the system assessment?

- history of diabetes (medications)
- history of thyroid disease or symptoms (change in skin texture / excessive sweating / extreme thirst / relationship between appetite and weight / nervousness / tremors)

72

Pale, cyanosis or cold skin are what?

external signs of oxygen transport dysfunction

73

What is short breath a sign of?

external sign of oxygen transport dysfunction

74

What is diaphoresis (excessive sweating) a sign of ?

An external sign of oxygen transport dysfunction

75

What are 4 internal signs of oxygen transport dysfunction?

1) vital signs
2) respiratory patterns
3) hypoxia/ low pulse oximetry
4) poor peripheral circulation
-decreased capillary refill (>3 sec)

76

pt history --> systems review --> hypothesis --> diagnostic exams and tests --> evaluation --> PT diagnosis --> PT prognosis --> working problem list --> plan of care

pt history --> systems review --> hypothesis --> diagnostic exams and tests --> evaluation --> PT diagnosis --> PT prognosis --> working problem list --> plan of care

77

List 3 levels of PT interventions:

1) prevention
2) secondary prevention
3) treatment

78

What is considered prevention?

- addresses PA
- addresses CV risk factors

79

What is considered secondary prevention?

- increase aerobic capacity/ endurance
- improve breathing pattern / ventilation

80

What is considered treatment?

- airway clearance
- exercise: strength mobility, ADL

81

Which circulation is the shortest in the body?

Coronary circulation

82

What structures of body are considered the functional anatomy of the heart?

- sternum
- lungs
- diaphragm
- liver
- colon
- stomach
- heart (left & right ventricles)

83

What are two membrane coverings of the heart?

- fibrous
- serous (2 layers)
==> pericardial cavity

84

The heart wall has (___ layers)

3

85

the __________ pericardium directly touches the heart (myocardium). External to that is the _______________________, which is covered by the ___________________ (which surrounds the _________________________________).

visceral pericardium
pericardial cavity
parietal pericardium fibrous
parietal pericardium serous

86

the internal anatomy includes the:

chambers and structures

87

what are two of the primary coronary arteries on the anterior surface of the heart?

- right coronary artery
- circumflex artery

88

What is a pathological change of the coronary artery?

percutaneous translational coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

89

Oxygen poor blood come from the _______________ and enters through the inferior and superior ___________________ traveling to the right ______________ then tho the right ___________________ and out to the _______________________. Blood is oxygenated in the capillary beds of the lungs where gas exchange occurs. From there it travels through the ___________________________ to the left __________ to the left ______________________________ out to the body through the _________________________ then the capillary beds of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs.

Oxygen poor blood come from the BODY and enters through the inferior and superior VENAE CAVAE traveling to the right ATRIUM then tho the right VENTRICLE and out to the PULMONARY ARTERIES. Blood is oxygenated in the capillary beds of the lungs where gas exchange occurs. From there it travels through the PULMONARY VEINS to the left ATRIUM to the left VENTRICLES out to the body through the AORTA & BRANCHES then to the capillary beds of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs.

90

List 3 cardiac muscles:

1) atrial muscle
2) ventricular muscle
3) specialized excitatory and conductive muscle