Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (614)
What is the gravitational effect of venous pressure:
- quiet stance
- movement "venous pump"
Where are blood reservoirs located?
(>60% blood usually in veins)
Different tissues have different _____________ needs over time.
(blood flow/ 100 g of tissue)
Regulated to provide the necessary level of blood flow to provide needs -->
What are the 2 phases of local blood control?
Describe the acute phase of local blood control:
fast adjustment of arteriole so, metarterioles, and pulmonary sphincter a (i.e. small vessels)
Describe the long-term phase of local blood control:
adjustment over days/ weeks/ months to control blood blow to tissue
Increase blood flow leads to _________________ O2 saturation.
decreased arterial O2 saturation
What is the vasodilator theory?
-Vasodilator substance released from local tissue
List examples of vasodilator theory:
Adenosine phosphate compounds
Describe the oxygen lack theory (aka nutrient lack theory)
- pre capillary sphincter a
- metarteriole sphincter
- other 'lack of substances' may facilitate vasodilation
Dilating "upstream" arteries, larger arteries "upstream" from local tissue control respond to effects of ________________________
Drag on "upstream" endothelium of vessel walls by rapid increased flow allows release substance that can _______________________ the "upstream" vessels
Endothelium- derived relaxing factor (EDRF) made primarily of________________. Reduces the resistance to _______ in upstream arteries
nitric oxide (NO)
What are 2 other mechanisms affecting local blood flow:
1. reactive hypermedia
2. active hyperemia
What is auto regulation of BF?
concept that after increase in BF to a tissue due to increase in arterial pressure, BF returns to near normal levels
- tissues have varying abilities to autoregulate
What are the 2 theories of autoregulate on?
Deficiency of nutrients/O2 release of ____________________
vascularization "built" for ______________________.
-provides more complete regulation
- affects tissue vascularization
- deficiency of nutrients / O2 - resistance of angiogenic factors
- vascularization "built" for maximum need
What are 2 factors of humoral control?
Name 4 vasoconstrictors:
1. norepinephrine/ epinephrine
2. angiotensin II
Name 2 vasodilators:
What are the 3 primary atherosclerotic diseases?
1. coronary disease
2 cerebrovascular disease
3. peripheral arterial disease
What demographic has the highest reported % of deaths due to heart disease?
Whites (% of deaths = 25.1%)
African Americans (24.5%)
Asians or Pacific Islanders (23.2%)
American Indians or Alaska Natives (18%)
About 2,150 Americans die each day from cardiovascular diseases, one every _________ seconds
Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives than:
all forms of cancer combined
Heart disease is the ______ cause of death in the world and the leading cause of death in the US, killing over 375,000 Americans a year.
List 6 cardiovascular risk factors:
1. cigarette smoking
2. abnormal lipids (apo B)
5. abdominal obesity
6. psychosocial stress
What are 3 cardio protective factors?
3. moderate alcohol
What factors contribute most to CV risk?
abnormal lipids (Apo A & B ratio)