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211

What is the gravitational effect of venous pressure:

- quiet stance
- movement "venous pump"

212

Where are blood reservoirs located?

veins
spleen
liver
heart
lungs
(>60% blood usually in veins)

213

Different tissues have different _____________ needs over time.

metabolic
(blood flow/ 100 g of tissue)

214

Regulated to provide the necessary level of blood flow to provide needs -->

no "extra"

215

What are the 2 phases of local blood control?

1) acute
2) long-term

216

Describe the acute phase of local blood control:

fast adjustment of arteriole so, metarterioles, and pulmonary sphincter a (i.e. small vessels)

217

Describe the long-term phase of local blood control:

adjustment over days/ weeks/ months to control blood blow to tissue

218

Increase blood flow leads to _________________ O2 saturation.

decreased arterial O2 saturation

219

What is the vasodilator theory?

-Vasodilator substance released from local tissue

220

List examples of vasodilator theory:

adenosine
CO2
Adenosine phosphate compounds
histamine
potassium ions
H+

221

Describe the oxygen lack theory (aka nutrient lack theory)

- pre capillary sphincter a
- metarteriole sphincter
- other 'lack of substances' may facilitate vasodilation

222

Dilating "upstream" arteries, larger arteries "upstream" from local tissue control respond to effects of ________________________

"downstream regulation"

223

Drag on "upstream" endothelium of vessel walls by rapid increased flow allows release substance that can _______________________ the "upstream" vessels

vasodilate

224

Endothelium- derived relaxing factor (EDRF) made primarily of________________. Reduces the resistance to _______ in upstream arteries

nitric oxide (NO)
BF

225

What are 2 other mechanisms affecting local blood flow:

1. reactive hypermedia
2. active hyperemia

226

What is auto regulation of BF?

concept that after increase in BF to a tissue due to increase in arterial pressure, BF returns to near normal levels
- tissues have varying abilities to autoregulate

227

What are the 2 theories of autoregulate on?

1. metabolic
2. myogenic

228

Long-term mechanisms:
provide _______________________
affects _____________________
Deficiency of nutrients/O2 release of ____________________
vascularization "built" for ______________________.

-provides more complete regulation
- affects tissue vascularization
- deficiency of nutrients / O2 - resistance of angiogenic factors
- vascularization "built" for maximum need

229

What are 2 factors of humoral control?

1. vasoconstriction
2. vasodilators

230

Name 4 vasoconstrictors:

1. norepinephrine/ epinephrine
2. angiotensin II
3. vasopressin
4. endothelium

231

Name 2 vasodilators:

1. Bradykinin
2. histamine

232

What are the 3 primary atherosclerotic diseases?

1. coronary disease
2 cerebrovascular disease
3. peripheral arterial disease

233

What demographic has the highest reported % of deaths due to heart disease?

Whites (% of deaths = 25.1%)
African Americans (24.5%)
Asians or Pacific Islanders (23.2%)
Hispanics (20.8%)
American Indians or Alaska Natives (18%)

234

About 2,150 Americans die each day from cardiovascular diseases, one every _________ seconds

40

235

Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives than:

all forms of cancer combined

236

Heart disease is the ______ cause of death in the world and the leading cause of death in the US, killing over 375,000 Americans a year.

no. 1

237

List 6 cardiovascular risk factors:

1. cigarette smoking
2. abnormal lipids (apo B)
3. hypertension
4. diabetes
5. abdominal obesity
6. psychosocial stress

238

What are 3 cardio protective factors?

1. fruit/veggies
2. Ex
3. moderate alcohol

239

What factors contribute most to CV risk?

abnormal lipids (Apo A & B ratio)
AND smoking

240

What is the least life-threatening acute coronary syndrome?

unstable angina