Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 2 Deck (50):
What are the 4 processes of life?
growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and metabolism
T/F: Prokaryotes lack a nucleus.
T/F: Eukaryotes lack a nucleus
T/F: Prokaryotes have internal-membrane bound organelles.
T/F: Prokaryotes have linear DNA
False; they have circular DNA
Which are smaller, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Which is composed of bacteria and archaea, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
T/F: Prokaryotes have a complex structure.
False; they have a simple structure
T/F: Eukaryotes have round DNA
False, they have linear DNA
What are eukaryotes composed of?
algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants
What are the two types of Glycocalyces (gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding the outside of the cell)?
Capsule and Slime layer
What is responsible for the movement of Bacterial cells?
T/F: all bacteria have Flagella
What rod-like proteinaceous extensions of bacterial cells have sticky, bristlelike projections, are used by bacteria to adhere to one another, and serve an important function in biofilms?
What rod-like proteinaceous extension of bacterial cells are longer than flagella, mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugation), and are also known as conjugation pili
What structure provides structure and shape to bacterial cells?
What structure protects bacterial cells from osmotic forces?
What are bacterial cell walls composed of?
What are the two basic types of bacterial cell walls?
Gram (+) and Gram (-)
Which type of cell walls appear purple after Gram staining?
Which type of cell walls have a relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan?
What kind of cell wall can be found on prokaryotes?
Which type of bacterial cell wall has a bilayer membrane and a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan?
Which type of cell walls appear red (or pink) after Gram staining procedure?
What are the passive processes of bacterial cells crossing the cytoplasmic membrane?
diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis
What are the active processes of bacterial cells crossing the cytoplasmic membrane?
active transport and group translocation
During which active process are substances chemically modified during transport?
What is the function of the semipermeable membrane during osmosis?
allows movement of H2O but not solutes
T/F: while placed in an isotonic solution, cells without a cell wall will erupt.
False, this occurs in hypotonic solutions
T/F: while placed in a hypertonic solution, cells without a cell wall will shrivel.
What is the liquid portion of cytoplasm called?
What are endospores?
unique structures produced by some bacteria as a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions
T/F: prokaryotic ribosomes are 80S
What 2 subuntis compose prokaryotic ribosomes?
30S and 50S
T/F: Animals and most protozoan have cell walls.
False; most lack a cell wall.
T/F: Fungi, algae, plants and some protozoa lack cell walls.
False; these all have cell walls
What process involves physical manipulation of cytoplasmic membrane around cytoskeleton to form pseudopodia?
What is phagocytosis?
solid imported into cell
What is pinocytosis?
liquid imported into the cell
What is the term for the process of exporting substances from the cell?
Which ribosomes are larger, prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
T/F: Eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S.
What 2 sub-units compose eukaryotic ribosomes?
60S and 40S
What part of eukaryotes have 70S ribosomes?
chloroplasts and mitochondria
T/F: Eukaryotic cells can have more than one nucleus.
T/F: Eukaryotic cells do not have a nuclear envelope.
What kind of DNA can be found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes?
What are the light harvesting structures found in eukaryotes?
T/F: some prokaryotes have chloroplast
False; all prokaryotes lack chloroplasts