Exam 1 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Exam 1 Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 2 Deck (50):
1

What are the 4 processes of life?

growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and metabolism

2

T/F: Prokaryotes lack a nucleus.

True

3

T/F: Eukaryotes lack a nucleus

False

4

T/F: Prokaryotes have internal-membrane bound organelles.

False

5

T/F: Prokaryotes have linear DNA

False; they have circular DNA

6

Which are smaller, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

prokaryotes

7

Which is composed of bacteria and archaea, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

prokaryotes

8

T/F: Prokaryotes have a complex structure.

False; they have a simple structure

9

T/F: Eukaryotes have round DNA

False, they have linear DNA

10

What are eukaryotes composed of?

algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants

11

What are the two types of Glycocalyces (gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding the outside of the cell)?

Capsule and Slime layer

12

What is responsible for the movement of Bacterial cells?

Flagella

13

T/F: all bacteria have Flagella

false

14

What rod-like proteinaceous extensions of bacterial cells have sticky, bristlelike projections, are used by bacteria to adhere to one another, and serve an important function in biofilms?

Fimbriae

15

What rod-like proteinaceous extension of bacterial cells are longer than flagella, mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugation), and are also known as conjugation pili

pili

16

What structure provides structure and shape to bacterial cells?

cell wall

17

What structure protects bacterial cells from osmotic forces?

cell wall

18

What are bacterial cell walls composed of?

peptidoglycan

19

What are the two basic types of bacterial cell walls?

Gram (+) and Gram (-)

20

Which type of cell walls appear purple after Gram staining?

Gram (+)

21

Which type of cell walls have a relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan?

Gram (+)

22

What kind of cell wall can be found on prokaryotes?

Gram (-)

23

Which type of bacterial cell wall has a bilayer membrane and a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan?

Gram (-)

24

Which type of cell walls appear red (or pink) after Gram staining procedure?

Gram (-)

25

What are the passive processes of bacterial cells crossing the cytoplasmic membrane?

diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis

26

What are the active processes of bacterial cells crossing the cytoplasmic membrane?

active transport and group translocation

27

During which active process are substances chemically modified during transport?

Group translocation

28

What is the function of the semipermeable membrane during osmosis?

allows movement of H2O but not solutes

29

T/F: while placed in an isotonic solution, cells without a cell wall will erupt.

False, this occurs in hypotonic solutions

30

T/F: while placed in a hypertonic solution, cells without a cell wall will shrivel.

True

31

What is the liquid portion of cytoplasm called?

cytosol

32

What are endospores?

unique structures produced by some bacteria as a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions

33

T/F: prokaryotic ribosomes are 80S

False, 70S

34

What 2 subuntis compose prokaryotic ribosomes?

30S and 50S

35

T/F: Animals and most protozoan have cell walls.

False; most lack a cell wall.

36

T/F: Fungi, algae, plants and some protozoa lack cell walls.

False; these all have cell walls

37

What process involves physical manipulation of cytoplasmic membrane around cytoskeleton to form pseudopodia?

Endocytosis

38

What is phagocytosis?

solid imported into cell

39

What is pinocytosis?

liquid imported into the cell

40

What is the term for the process of exporting substances from the cell?

Exocytosis

41

Which ribosomes are larger, prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

eukaryotic

42

T/F: Eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S.

True

43

What 2 sub-units compose eukaryotic ribosomes?

60S and 40S

44

What part of eukaryotes have 70S ribosomes?

chloroplasts and mitochondria

45

T/F: Eukaryotic cells can have more than one nucleus.

True

46

T/F: Eukaryotic cells do not have a nuclear envelope.

False

47

What kind of DNA can be found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes?

circular

48

What are the light harvesting structures found in eukaryotes?

chloroplast

49

T/F: some prokaryotes have chloroplast

False; all prokaryotes lack chloroplasts

50

What kind of ribosomes can be found in chloroplasts?

70S