Exam 1 Part 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 5 Deck (54):
1

What are the 3 eukaryotic microbes of clinical interest?

protozoa, fungi, and parasitic helminths

2

T/F: Eukaryotes can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Some even do both.

True

3

T/F: Protozoa typically lack a cell wall.

True

4

T/F: Most protozoa are pathogens

False; very few are

5

What kind of environment is required by protozoa?

moist environments

6

How do most protozoa reproduce?

asexually

7

T/F: all protozoa produce trophozoites.

true

8

T/F: all protozoa produce cysts

false; some do, but not all

9

What do protozoa have that protect them from osmotic lysis?

contractile vacuoles

10

T/F: 30% of fungi cause diseases of plants, animals and humans (mycoses)

True

11

What is the name given to the nonreproductive body of fungi?

thallus

12

What long, branched, tubular filaments compose the thalli of molds?

hyphae

13

What is the term applied to fungi that produce two types of thalli?

dimorphic

14

What form of dimorphic fungi generally cause diseases?

yeast form

15

What is the term for a tangled mass of hyphae (typically subterranean)?

mycelium

16

T/F: all fungi have the ability to reproduce asexually.

True

17

T/F: all fungi have the ability to reproduce sexually.

false, but most do.

18

What is a pseudohypha?

a series of buds that remain attached to one another and to parent cell

19

AIDS, common colds, hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, and smallpox are all caused by what type of pathogen?

viruses

20

T/F: viruses can have either DNA or RNA.

True

21

What is the name for the protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid core of viruses?

capsid

22

What outer structure do viruses have that encloses the nucelocapsids?

envelope

23

Other than protection, what other function is provided by capsids and envelopes of viruses?

means of attachment to host's cells

24

When is the capsid of a virus removed?

once the virus is inside the host

25

Once inside a host, how does a virus exist?

simply as nucleic acid

26

T/F: viruses are always specific and infect only a particular kind of cell in a particular host.

False; some are generalists and infect many kinds of cells in many hosts

27

What types of organisms are susceptible to viral attack?

ALL types

28

What viral shape consists of capsids of many shapes?

complex

29

What viral shape is spiral in nature?

helical

30

What viral shape consists of a geodesic dome?

polyhedral

31

What is a naked virion?

a virion without an envelope

32

Where is the viral envelope acquired?

from host cell during replication

33

What are the 3 main functions of the viral envelope?

protection, host recognition, and helping viruses enter host cells

34

T/F: virus replication does not usually result in death of the host cell.

False

35

T/F: viral replication is dependent on the hosts' organelles and enzymes to produce new virions.

True

36

What is lysogeny?

a modified viral replication cycle

37

What are prophages?

inactive phages

38

What is it called when phages carry genes that alter phenotype of a bacterium? This can turn harmless bacterium to pathogen.

lysogenic conversion

39

Do animal cells have a cell wall?

no

40

T/F: replication of animal viruses is the same basic replication pathway of bacteriophages.

true

41

Do animal viruses have tails or tail fibers?

no

42

What are the 3 mechanisms of Entry of Animal Viruses?

Direct penetration, membrane fusion and endocytosis

43

What are viruses called when they remain dormant in host cells?

latent viruses or proviruses

44

What parasitic particles are extremely small, circular pieces of RNA and lack capsids?

Viroids

45

What type of organisms are infected by viroids?

plants

46

What are viroidlike agents?

infectious, pathogenic RNA particles that lack capsids

47

What organisms are infected by viroidlike agents?

fungi, NOT plants

48

T/F: Prions lack nucleic acid

True

49

What are the only two ways to destroy Prions?

incineration and autoclaving in sodium hydroxide

50

Where is prion expression most predominant?

nervous system

51

What is the characteristic appearance of prion diseases?

spongy appearance (large vacuoles in the brain)

52

BSE, vCJD, and Kuru are all what kind of diseases?

Spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases)

53

T/F: prions may lie behind neuronal degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and ALS.

True

54

What disease discussed in class is carried by the Asian tiger mosquito?

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