Exam 1 Part 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 6 Deck (75):
1

T/F: fermented foods are among some of the newest foods known.

False; fermented foods are some of the oldest foods known and are culturally diverse

2

What produces the flavors, aromas, and consistencies of many foods?

fermentation acids and sugars

3

What is the term for any desirable change that occurs to a food or beverage as a result of microbial growth?

Fermentation

4

What is the term for adverse changes to a food due to the action of microorganisms?

Spoilage

5

What common fermented food mentioned in class is made from honey?

mead

6

What classification is given to foods that have a minimal storage time?

perishable

7

what classification is given to foods that can be stored sealed for months?

semi-perishable

8

What classification of foods can be stored indefinitely?

non-perishable

9

What classification of foods based on likelihood of spoilage is the most nutrient-rich?

perishable

10

T/F: low temperatures are desirable to prevent food spoilage.

False; low temps for food storage

11

T/F: high temperatures are desirable for food storage.

False; high temps prevent spoilage.

12

What are some symptoms of foodborne illnesses?

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and muscle cramps

13

What are the two categories of food poisoning?

food infections and food intoxications

14

T/F: consumption of living microorganisms is associated with food intoxications.

False; this is associated with food infections

15

T/F: consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe is associated with food infections.

False; this is food intoxication

16

Where do most foodborne illnesses come from?

food service industry 38%

17

T/F: the second most common known origin of foodborne illnesses is home preparation.

True 25%

18

What is the second most common origin of foodborne illnesses?

unknown origin (30%)

19

What food product is affected by Clostridium botulinum (produces a neurotoxin)?

Home-prepared foods

20

What food is affected by Escherichia coli (produces an enterotoxin)?

meat; raw milk

21

What organism affects raw and undercooked eggs, meat, dairy products, fruits and vegetables?

Salmonella spp

22

What is the second most common cause of foodborne illness in the
US?

Salmonella spp

23

What organism affects raw and undercooked seafood causing primary septicemia?

Vibrio vulnificus

24

What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of particulate matter?

physical

25

What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of inorganic or organic compounds?

chemical

26

What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of too many or non-native microorganisms?

biological

27

T/F: waterborne diseases are rare in the US.

True

28

Selected Waterborne Agents

Table 25.6 on slide 177

29

What virus discussed in class as an emerging disease is associated with handwashing, close living quarters and gastroenteritis?

norovirus

30

What is the term for water that is considered safe to drink?

potable

31

What is indicated by the presence of coliforms in water?

fecal contamination

32

What are the 4 stages involved in treatment of drinking water?

coagulation or folcculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection

33

What are the 3 methods of microbial removal during filtration?

sand filtration, activated charcoal, and membrane filtration

34

During disinfection, what are the 3 ways of inactivating remaining microbes in drinking water?

Chlorine, Ozone, and UV light

35

What method of disinfection is used most commonly?

chlorine

36

What does remediate meant?

to solve a problem

37

What is the term for using biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or ground water?

Bio-remediate

38

What is bioterrorism?

the use of microbes or their toxins to terrorze human populations.

39

What is the term for using microbes to terrorize human populations by destroying the food supply?

Agroterrorism

40

Bioterrorist Threats to humans

Table 25.8 slide 186

41

What is considered more dangerous to humans, Viral encephalitis or viral hemorrhagic fevers?

viral hemorrhagic fevers

42

T/F: pathogens in biosafety level 1 can be handled by healthy humans without causing disease.

True

43

What level of biosafety are microbes that cause severe or fatal diseases classified?

Level 4

44

What does symbiosis mean?

to live together

45

What are the 3 types of symbiosis?

mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

46

During which symbiotic relationship type do both organisms benefit?

mutualism

47

During which symbiotic relationship type does one organism benefit but the other is neither harmed nor benefited?

commensalism

48

During which type of symbiotic relationship does one organism benefit and the other is harmed?

parasitism

49

What are the other names for normal microbiota?

normal flora and indigenous microbiota

50

What are the two types of normal microbiota that colonize the body's surface without normally causing disease?

Resident microbiota and transient microbiota

51

Which type of normal microbiota remains a part of a person for life?

resident micorbiota

52

Which type of normal microbiota remains in the body for hours-months before disappearing?

Transient microbiota

53

What is the term for sites that are free of any microbes and are never colonized by normal flora?

axenic

54

What are some examples of axenic areas in the body?

alveoli of lungs, CNS, circulatory system, Upper urogenital regions, and uterus

55

When do humans first begin to develop normal microbiota?

during birthing process

56

T/F: much of a person's resident microbiota is established during the first months of life.

True

57

what are opportunistic pathogens?

normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances i.e. immune suppression or introduction into unusual sites in the body

58

What are reservoirs of infection?

sites where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection

59

What are the 3 types of reservoirs mentioned in class?

animal reservoirs, human carriers, and nonliving reservoirs

60

What is the term for diseases that naturally spread from animal host to humans?

zoonoses

61

What is meant by humans being dead-end hosts?

humans get diseases from animals, animals do not usually get diseases from humans.

62

T/F: infected individuals who are asymptomatic can infect others.

True, these people are called carriers.

63

T/F: some carriers eventually develop illness.

True

64

T/F: Quarantine is used to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease.

False; the proper term is isolation

65

T/F: Isolation is used to separate and restrict the movement of well persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease.

False; this is the definition of quarantine

66

What are nonliving reservoirs of infection?

soil, water, and food; commonly contaminated by feces or urine

67

What is the term for the mere presence of microbes in or on the body?

contamination

68

What is the term for when an organism evades a body's external defenses, multiplies, and becomes established in the body?

infection

69

T/F: Infection results in disease.

Not always; infection may or may not result in disease

70

What are the 3 major Portals of Entry (pathways which pathogens enter the body)?

Skin, Mucous membranes, and placenta

71

What is the parenteral route?

technically not a portal of entry, but a way to circumvent the usual portals of entry; cuts or punctures in the skin

72

What is the most common site of entry for pathogens?

respiratory tract (nose, mouth, or eyes)

73

T/F: GI tract may be a route of entry for some pathogens.

True

74

T/F: Toxoplasmosis, syphilis, listeriosis, erythema infectiosum, AIDS, and German measles can all cross the placenta to infect the fetus.

True: slide 210

75

What portal of entry would be involved in stepping on a nail?

parenteral route