Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 6 Deck (75):
T/F: fermented foods are among some of the newest foods known.
False; fermented foods are some of the oldest foods known and are culturally diverse
What produces the flavors, aromas, and consistencies of many foods?
fermentation acids and sugars
What is the term for any desirable change that occurs to a food or beverage as a result of microbial growth?
What is the term for adverse changes to a food due to the action of microorganisms?
What common fermented food mentioned in class is made from honey?
What classification is given to foods that have a minimal storage time?
what classification is given to foods that can be stored sealed for months?
What classification of foods can be stored indefinitely?
What classification of foods based on likelihood of spoilage is the most nutrient-rich?
T/F: low temperatures are desirable to prevent food spoilage.
False; low temps for food storage
T/F: high temperatures are desirable for food storage.
False; high temps prevent spoilage.
What are some symptoms of foodborne illnesses?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and muscle cramps
What are the two categories of food poisoning?
food infections and food intoxications
T/F: consumption of living microorganisms is associated with food intoxications.
False; this is associated with food infections
T/F: consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe is associated with food infections.
False; this is food intoxication
Where do most foodborne illnesses come from?
food service industry 38%
T/F: the second most common known origin of foodborne illnesses is home preparation.
What is the second most common origin of foodborne illnesses?
unknown origin (30%)
What food product is affected by Clostridium botulinum (produces a neurotoxin)?
What food is affected by Escherichia coli (produces an enterotoxin)?
meat; raw milk
What organism affects raw and undercooked eggs, meat, dairy products, fruits and vegetables?
What is the second most common cause of foodborne illness in the
What organism affects raw and undercooked seafood causing primary septicemia?
What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of particulate matter?
What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of inorganic or organic compounds?
What type of water pollution is associated with the presence of too many or non-native microorganisms?
T/F: waterborne diseases are rare in the US.
Selected Waterborne Agents
Table 25.6 on slide 177
What virus discussed in class as an emerging disease is associated with handwashing, close living quarters and gastroenteritis?
What is the term for water that is considered safe to drink?
What is indicated by the presence of coliforms in water?
What are the 4 stages involved in treatment of drinking water?
coagulation or folcculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection
What are the 3 methods of microbial removal during filtration?
sand filtration, activated charcoal, and membrane filtration
During disinfection, what are the 3 ways of inactivating remaining microbes in drinking water?
Chlorine, Ozone, and UV light
What method of disinfection is used most commonly?
What does remediate meant?
to solve a problem
What is the term for using biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or ground water?
What is bioterrorism?
the use of microbes or their toxins to terrorze human populations.
What is the term for using microbes to terrorize human populations by destroying the food supply?
Bioterrorist Threats to humans
Table 25.8 slide 186
What is considered more dangerous to humans, Viral encephalitis or viral hemorrhagic fevers?
viral hemorrhagic fevers
T/F: pathogens in biosafety level 1 can be handled by healthy humans without causing disease.
What level of biosafety are microbes that cause severe or fatal diseases classified?
What does symbiosis mean?
to live together
What are the 3 types of symbiosis?
mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
During which symbiotic relationship type do both organisms benefit?
During which symbiotic relationship type does one organism benefit but the other is neither harmed nor benefited?
During which type of symbiotic relationship does one organism benefit and the other is harmed?
What are the other names for normal microbiota?
normal flora and indigenous microbiota
What are the two types of normal microbiota that colonize the body's surface without normally causing disease?
Resident microbiota and transient microbiota
Which type of normal microbiota remains a part of a person for life?
Which type of normal microbiota remains in the body for hours-months before disappearing?
What is the term for sites that are free of any microbes and are never colonized by normal flora?
What are some examples of axenic areas in the body?
alveoli of lungs, CNS, circulatory system, Upper urogenital regions, and uterus
When do humans first begin to develop normal microbiota?
during birthing process
T/F: much of a person's resident microbiota is established during the first months of life.
what are opportunistic pathogens?
normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances i.e. immune suppression or introduction into unusual sites in the body
What are reservoirs of infection?
sites where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection
What are the 3 types of reservoirs mentioned in class?
animal reservoirs, human carriers, and nonliving reservoirs
What is the term for diseases that naturally spread from animal host to humans?
What is meant by humans being dead-end hosts?
humans get diseases from animals, animals do not usually get diseases from humans.
T/F: infected individuals who are asymptomatic can infect others.
True, these people are called carriers.
T/F: some carriers eventually develop illness.
T/F: Quarantine is used to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease.
False; the proper term is isolation
T/F: Isolation is used to separate and restrict the movement of well persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease.
False; this is the definition of quarantine
What are nonliving reservoirs of infection?
soil, water, and food; commonly contaminated by feces or urine
What is the term for the mere presence of microbes in or on the body?
What is the term for when an organism evades a body's external defenses, multiplies, and becomes established in the body?
T/F: Infection results in disease.
Not always; infection may or may not result in disease
What are the 3 major Portals of Entry (pathways which pathogens enter the body)?
Skin, Mucous membranes, and placenta
What is the parenteral route?
technically not a portal of entry, but a way to circumvent the usual portals of entry; cuts or punctures in the skin
What is the most common site of entry for pathogens?
respiratory tract (nose, mouth, or eyes)
T/F: GI tract may be a route of entry for some pathogens.
T/F: Toxoplasmosis, syphilis, listeriosis, erythema infectiosum, AIDS, and German measles can all cross the placenta to infect the fetus.
True: slide 210