Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 8 Deck (46):
How are diseases classified? (4)
body system they affect, taxonomic categories, longevity and severity, and how they are spread to their host.
What is the term for a disease in which symptoms develop rapidly and that runs its course quickly?
What is the term for a disease with usually mild symptoms that develop slowly and last a long time?
What is the term for a disease that appears a long time after infection?
What is a communicable disease?
a disease transmitted from one host to another
What is the term for a widespread infection in many systems of the body; often travels in the blood or the lymph?
What is the term for an infection that serves as a source of pathogens for infections at other sites in the body?
What is the term for infections that follow a primary infection; often by opportunistic pathogens?
What is the term for the number of new cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?
What is the term for the number of total cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?
What is the term for a disease that normally occurs at regular intervals at a relatively stable incidence within a given population or geographical area?
What is the term for only a few scattered cases within an area or population?
What is the term for when a disease occurs at a greater frequency than is usual for an area or population?
What is an epidemic that occurs simultaneously on more than one continent?
What is the index case of a disease?
the first case of the disease
What can be included in tabulation of data for descriptive epidemiology?
recording location and time of cases of disease and collecting patient information; also trying to identify the index case
What are nosocomial infections?
infections acquired in health-care settings ([patients or employees)
What is the term for diseases that result from modern medical procedures?
What is the most effective way to reduce nosocomial infections?
What emerging disease discussed in class is a nosocomial disease which can spread between individuals who share fomites (towels, razors, clothing, or sheets)?
community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)
What emerging disease is caused by Hantavirus?
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
What is sterilization?
removal of all microbes
What is an aseptic environment?
one free of contamination by pathogens
What is disinfection?
use of physical or chemical agents to inhibit or destroy microorganisms; does not guarantee all pathogens are eliminated.
What is it called when a chemical is used on skin or other tissue for microbial control?
antisepsis; the chemical itself is antiseptic
What is the term for removal of microbes from a surface by scrubbing?
What is the term for the process of disinfecting places and utensils used by the public?
What is pasteurization?
use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages
What suffix is used to indicated that a, agent inhibits microbial metabolism and growth?
What suffix refers to agents that destroy or permanently inactivate a particular type of microbe?
What is the term for permanent loss of reproductive ability under ideal environmental conditions?
What is the measurement of efficacy of an antimicrobial agent?
microbial death rate
What are the 4 main characteristics of an ideal anti-microbial agent?
inexpensive, fast-acting, stable during storage, and selective toxicity
What factors affect the efficacy of antimicrobial methods the greatest?
site and susceptibility
What 2 pathogens are the most resistant to antimicrobial methods?
prions and endospores
What classification of germicides kills endospores and is used to sterilize invasive instruments?
What classification of germicides is used to disinfect instruments tat contact mucous membranes?
What kind of pathogens are killed by low-level germicides?
vegetative bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and some viruses
T/F: moist heat is more effective than dry heat in sanitization.
What are the 4 main methods of moist heat?
boiling, autoclaving, pasteurization, and UHT (ultrahigh-temperature sterilization)
T/F: endospores, prions, protozoan cysts, and some viruses can survive boiling.
T/F: Pasteurized products are sterilized.
What physical method of moist heat allows for treated liquids to be stored at room temperature for 6-9 months?
UHT (ultrahigh-temperature sterilization)
What are the two methods of dry heat?
hot air and incineration
T/F: dry heat requires higher temperatures but for lesser time than moist heat.
False; dry heat require higher temp and longer time