Exam 1 Part 8 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Exam 1 Part 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 8 Deck (46):
1

How are diseases classified? (4)

body system they affect, taxonomic categories, longevity and severity, and how they are spread to their host.

2

What is the term for a disease in which symptoms develop rapidly and that runs its course quickly?

acute disease

3

What is the term for a disease with usually mild symptoms that develop slowly and last a long time?

chronic disease

4

What is the term for a disease that appears a long time after infection?

latent disease

5

What is a communicable disease?

a disease transmitted from one host to another

6

What is the term for a widespread infection in many systems of the body; often travels in the blood or the lymph?

systemic infection

7

What is the term for an infection that serves as a source of pathogens for infections at other sites in the body?

focal infection

8

What is the term for infections that follow a primary infection; often by opportunistic pathogens?

secondary infection

9

What is the term for the number of new cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?

incidence

10

What is the term for the number of total cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time?

prevalence

11

What is the term for a disease that normally occurs at regular intervals at a relatively stable incidence within a given population or geographical area?

endemic

12

What is the term for only a few scattered cases within an area or population?

sporadic

13

What is the term for when a disease occurs at a greater frequency than is usual for an area or population?

epidemic

14

What is an epidemic that occurs simultaneously on more than one continent?

pandemic

15

What is the index case of a disease?

the first case of the disease

16

What can be included in tabulation of data for descriptive epidemiology?

recording location and time of cases of disease and collecting patient information; also trying to identify the index case

17

What are nosocomial infections?

infections acquired in health-care settings ([patients or employees)

18

What is the term for diseases that result from modern medical procedures?

latrogenic

19

What is the most effective way to reduce nosocomial infections?

hand washing

20

What emerging disease discussed in class is a nosocomial disease which can spread between individuals who share fomites (towels, razors, clothing, or sheets)?

community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

21

What emerging disease is caused by Hantavirus?

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

22

What is sterilization?

removal of all microbes

23

What is an aseptic environment?

one free of contamination by pathogens

24

What is disinfection?

use of physical or chemical agents to inhibit or destroy microorganisms; does not guarantee all pathogens are eliminated.

25

What is it called when a chemical is used on skin or other tissue for microbial control?

antisepsis; the chemical itself is antiseptic

26

What is the term for removal of microbes from a surface by scrubbing?

degerming

27

What is the term for the process of disinfecting places and utensils used by the public?

sanitization

28

What is pasteurization?

use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages

29

What suffix is used to indicated that a, agent inhibits microbial metabolism and growth?

-stasis/ -static

30

What suffix refers to agents that destroy or permanently inactivate a particular type of microbe?

-cide/-cidal

31

What is the term for permanent loss of reproductive ability under ideal environmental conditions?

microbial death

32

What is the measurement of efficacy of an antimicrobial agent?

microbial death rate

33

What are the 4 main characteristics of an ideal anti-microbial agent?

inexpensive, fast-acting, stable during storage, and selective toxicity

34

What factors affect the efficacy of antimicrobial methods the greatest?

site and susceptibility

35

What 2 pathogens are the most resistant to antimicrobial methods?

prions and endospores

36

What classification of germicides kills endospores and is used to sterilize invasive instruments?

high-level

37

What classification of germicides is used to disinfect instruments tat contact mucous membranes?

intermediate-level

38

What kind of pathogens are killed by low-level germicides?

vegetative bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and some viruses

39

T/F: moist heat is more effective than dry heat in sanitization.

true

40

What are the 4 main methods of moist heat?

boiling, autoclaving, pasteurization, and UHT (ultrahigh-temperature sterilization)

41

T/F: endospores, prions, protozoan cysts, and some viruses can survive boiling.

true

42

T/F: Pasteurized products are sterilized.

False

43

What physical method of moist heat allows for treated liquids to be stored at room temperature for 6-9 months?

UHT (ultrahigh-temperature sterilization)

44

What are the two methods of dry heat?

hot air and incineration

45

T/F: dry heat requires higher temperatures but for lesser time than moist heat.

False; dry heat require higher temp and longer time

46

What is the ultimate means of sterilization?

incineration