Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 4 Deck (55):
What is the study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in an organism's genetic material?
What the term for the entire genetic complement of an organism including its genes and nucleotide sequences?
What is the term for the actual set of genes in the genome?
What is the term for the physical features and functional traits of the organism?
T/F:Genotype determines phenotype.
These small molecules of extra-chromosomal DNA are not essential for normal metabolsim, growth, or reproduction, but can confer survival advantages. What are they called?
What are the 4 types of plasmids?
Fertility factors (F plasmids), Resistance factors (R plasmids), Bacteriocin factors, and Virulence plasmids
What is the term for exchange of nucleotide sequences between 2 DNA molecules?
What is the term for cells with DNA molecules that contain new arrangements of nucleotide sequences?
What normal process (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) involves organisms replicating their genomes and providing copies to descendants?
Vertical Gene transfer
During which type of gene transfer are genes acquired from other microbes of the same generation?
Horizontal gene transfer
During which type of gene transfer can the donor cell be of a different species?
Horizontal gene transfer
What are the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer?
transformation, transduction, and bacterial conjugation
T/F: During Transformation, the recipient cell takes up DNA from environment.
What is the term for cells that take up DNA?
T/F: Transformation occurs in most types of bacteria.
False; only a few types
What term is defined as the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a replicating virus?
What are the two types of Transduction?
Generalized and Specialized
What is the term for transfer of DNA from one cell to another, mediated by conjugation pili?
What is required by the donor cell during conjugation?
F plasmid (F+)
T/F: recipient cells (of conjugation) lack F plasmid.
What flesh-eating bacteria that lives in warm salt water was discussed in class?
T/F: ALL prokaryotes reproduce asexually.
What are the 3 main methods of reproduction for prokaryotes?
Binary fission, snapping division, and budding
What is the most common method of reproduction among prokaryotes?
T/F: Snapping division is a variation of binary fission.
What is the major difference between binary fission and snapping division?
Snapping division involves a hinge.
What are the only things that can produce endospores?
Gram (+) Bacillus and Clostridium
T/F: Each vegetative cell transforms into one endospore.
T/F: Each endospore GERMINATES into one vegetative cell.
How long does Sporulation take?
T/F: Many endospores produce deadly toxins that cause fatal diseases.
What are cocci in clusters?
What are cocci in pairs and chains?
What are the endospore forming rods?
bacillus and clostridum
Listeria, propionibacterium, mycobacterium, nocardia, actinomyces, and streptomyces are all considered what?
non-endospore forming rods
What disease is caused by the aerobic rod pseudomonas?
What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with UTIs?
What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with cholera?
What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with meningitis in children?
What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with appendicitis?
What gram (+) bacteria is associated with food poisoning?
What Gram(+) bacteria is associated with lung abscesses?
What Gram (+) bacteria is associated with oral abscesses?
What Gram (+) bacteria is an important source of antibiotics?
What color will bacteria without a cell wall stain during Gram-staining?
What distinctive appearance will form on bacteria with no cell wall when grown on media?
T/F: bacteria with a cell wall will regularly colonize osmotically protected habitats such as animal and human bodies.
False; this is true of bacteria without a cell wall
What reemerging disease discussed in class is usually considered a childhood disease known commonly as whooping cough?
What is the largest group of archaea?
What is one of the primary sources of environmental methane?
What is the term for the ~10 trillion tons of methane gas that is buried in mud on the ocean floor?
What type of Archaea converts CO2 and H2 into methane gas?
Which type of Archaea require extreme conditions to survive (temperature, pH, and/or salinity)?