Exam 1 Part 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 4 Deck (55):
1

What is the study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in an organism's genetic material?

Genetics

2

What the term for the entire genetic complement of an organism including its genes and nucleotide sequences?

Genome

3

What is the term for the actual set of genes in the genome?

Genotype

4

What is the term for the physical features and functional traits of the organism?

Phenotype

5

T/F:Genotype determines phenotype.

True

6

These small molecules of extra-chromosomal DNA are not essential for normal metabolsim, growth, or reproduction, but can confer survival advantages. What are they called?

plasmids

7

What are the 4 types of plasmids?

Fertility factors (F plasmids), Resistance factors (R plasmids), Bacteriocin factors, and Virulence plasmids

8

What is the term for exchange of nucleotide sequences between 2 DNA molecules?

Genetic Recombination

9

What is the term for cells with DNA molecules that contain new arrangements of nucleotide sequences?

Recombinants

10

What normal process (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) involves organisms replicating their genomes and providing copies to descendants?

Vertical Gene transfer

11

During which type of gene transfer are genes acquired from other microbes of the same generation?

Horizontal gene transfer

12

During which type of gene transfer can the donor cell be of a different species?

Horizontal gene transfer

13

What are the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer?

transformation, transduction, and bacterial conjugation

14

T/F: During Transformation, the recipient cell takes up DNA from environment.

True

15

What is the term for cells that take up DNA?

competent

16

T/F: Transformation occurs in most types of bacteria.

False; only a few types

17

What term is defined as the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a replicating virus?

Transduction

18

What are the two types of Transduction?

Generalized and Specialized

19

What is the term for transfer of DNA from one cell to another, mediated by conjugation pili?

conjugation

20

What is required by the donor cell during conjugation?

F plasmid (F+)

21

T/F: recipient cells (of conjugation) lack F plasmid.

True (F-)

22

What flesh-eating bacteria that lives in warm salt water was discussed in class?

Vibrio vulnificus

23

T/F: ALL prokaryotes reproduce asexually.

True

24

What are the 3 main methods of reproduction for prokaryotes?

Binary fission, snapping division, and budding

25

What is the most common method of reproduction among prokaryotes?

Binary fission

26

T/F: Snapping division is a variation of binary fission.

True

27

What is the major difference between binary fission and snapping division?

Snapping division involves a hinge.

28

What are the only things that can produce endospores?

Gram (+) Bacillus and Clostridium

29

T/F: Each vegetative cell transforms into one endospore.

True

30

T/F: Each endospore GERMINATES into one vegetative cell.

True

31

How long does Sporulation take?

8-10 hours

32

T/F: Many endospores produce deadly toxins that cause fatal diseases.

True

33

What are cocci in clusters?

staphylococcus

34

What are cocci in pairs and chains?

streptococcus

35

What are the endospore forming rods?

bacillus and clostridum

36

Listeria, propionibacterium, mycobacterium, nocardia, actinomyces, and streptomyces are all considered what?

non-endospore forming rods

37

What disease is caused by the aerobic rod pseudomonas?

pneumonia

38

What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with UTIs?

Proteus

39

What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with cholera?

Vibrio

40

What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with meningitis in children?

Haemophilus

41

What Gram (-) Bacteria is associated with appendicitis?

Bacteroides

42

What gram (+) bacteria is associated with food poisoning?

Listeria

43

What Gram(+) bacteria is associated with lung abscesses?

Nocardia

44

What Gram (+) bacteria is associated with oral abscesses?

actinomyces

45

What Gram (+) bacteria is an important source of antibiotics?

streptomyces

46

What color will bacteria without a cell wall stain during Gram-staining?

red

47

What distinctive appearance will form on bacteria with no cell wall when grown on media?

"fried egg"

48

T/F: bacteria with a cell wall will regularly colonize osmotically protected habitats such as animal and human bodies.

False; this is true of bacteria without a cell wall

49

What reemerging disease discussed in class is usually considered a childhood disease known commonly as whooping cough?

Pertussis

50

What is the largest group of archaea?

Methanogens

51

What is one of the primary sources of environmental methane?

animal colons

52

What is the term for the ~10 trillion tons of methane gas that is buried in mud on the ocean floor?

greenhouse gas

53

What type of Archaea converts CO2 and H2 into methane gas?

Methanogens

54

Which type of Archaea require extreme conditions to survive (temperature, pH, and/or salinity)?

Extremophiles

55

What are the 4 types of extremophiles?

psychrophiles, halophiles, acidophiles, and thermophiles (PHAT)