Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 4 Deck (55)
What is the study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in an organism's genetic material?
What the term for the entire genetic complement of an organism including its genes and nucleotide sequences?
What is the term for the actual set of genes in the genome?
What is the term for the physical features and functional traits of the organism?
T/F:Genotype determines phenotype.
These small molecules of extra-chromosomal DNA are not essential for normal metabolsim, growth, or reproduction, but can confer survival advantages. What are they called?
What are the 4 types of plasmids?
Fertility factors (F plasmids), Resistance factors (R plasmids), Bacteriocin factors, and Virulence plasmids
What is the term for exchange of nucleotide sequences between 2 DNA molecules?
What is the term for cells with DNA molecules that contain new arrangements of nucleotide sequences?
What normal process (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) involves organisms replicating their genomes and providing copies to descendants?
Vertical Gene transfer
During which type of gene transfer are genes acquired from other microbes of the same generation?
Horizontal gene transfer
During which type of gene transfer can the donor cell be of a different species?
Horizontal gene transfer
What are the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer?
transformation, transduction, and bacterial conjugation
T/F: During Transformation, the recipient cell takes up DNA from environment.
What is the term for cells that take up DNA?
T/F: Transformation occurs in most types of bacteria.
False; only a few types
What term is defined as the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a replicating virus?
What are the two types of Transduction?
Generalized and Specialized
What is the term for transfer of DNA from one cell to another, mediated by conjugation pili?
What is required by the donor cell during conjugation?
F plasmid (F+)
T/F: recipient cells (of conjugation) lack F plasmid.
What flesh-eating bacteria that lives in warm salt water was discussed in class?
T/F: ALL prokaryotes reproduce asexually.
What are the 3 main methods of reproduction for prokaryotes?
Binary fission, snapping division, and budding
What is the most common method of reproduction among prokaryotes?
T/F: Snapping division is a variation of binary fission.
What is the major difference between binary fission and snapping division?
Snapping division involves a hinge.
What are the only things that can produce endospores?
Gram (+) Bacillus and Clostridium
T/F: Each vegetative cell transforms into one endospore.