Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 3 Deck (46):
Who created the system of classifying organisms based on characteristics in common using binomial nomenclature?
What is binomial nomenclature?
Who proposed a taxonomic approach on five kingdoms? what were the 5?
Whittaker; animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, and prokaryotae
Who proposed three domains as determined by ribosomal nucleotide sequences (rRNA) and what were they?
Carl Woese; eukarya, bacteria, and archaea
What kingdom are helminths in?
The shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer as separate entities is known as what?
Differences in intensity between two object, or between an object and background is know as what?
T/F: contrast is important in determining resolution and is increased by staining.
T/F: gram stain, acid-fast stain, and endospore stain are all considered special stains.
False; these are differential stains
T/F:crystal violet, safranin, methylene blue, and malachite green are all considered special stains.
False; these are simple stains
Negative (capsule) stain and flagellar stain are both special stains.
What is the term used for a group of bacteria that do not have the typical peptidoglycan cell walls?
What makes mycobacteria resistant to decolorization by acids during staining?
a high waxy mycolic acid content in their cell walls
What is another name for mycobacteria?
During the technique of Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Staining, what are the two possible results?
red (acid-fast) or blue (non-acid-fast cells)
What are the 3 steps of the Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Stain?
Red primary stains, Decolorize with alcohol, and counterstain with methylene blue
Why do red acid-fast cells retain their red color during decorizing with alcohol?
the acid cannot penetrate the waxy wall
What are the three steps of the Schaeffer-Fulton Endospore Stain?
primary stain with malachite green, decolorize with water, and counterstain with safranin
What are the two results of Endospore staining?
green-stained endospores and red-colored vegetative cells
What are dichotomous keys?
seried of paired statements where only one of two 'either/or" choices applies to any particular organism
What flesh-eating reemerging disease caused by a Group A Streptococcus Gram (+) bacteria was discussed in class?
An increase in the size of a population of microbes is known as what?
What is a colony?
aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell
What is a biofilm?
collection of microbes in a complex community
T/F: Bacteria and Archaea can be considered photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, and chemoheterotrophs.
False; bacteria and archaea are not included in chempheterotrophs (might want to look over slide 68)
T/F: Microorganisms vary widely in their oxygen requirements for growth.
What is the most important factor (generally) affecting growth?
T/F: Psychrophillic organisms prefer high temps.
False, they prefer cold (crazy people like the cold)
T/F: Mesophilic organisms prefer moderate temperatures.
True (M for middle)
T/F: very few pathogenic organisms are mesophiles.
False, most are actually
T/F: Hyper Thermophilic organisms prefer cold temperatures.
False; these prefer high temps (hyper=higher)
What pH range do most microorganisms thrive in?
What pH do most animal pathogens work best near?
pH of 7
T/F: Vegetative cell maintenance and growth requires water.
What kind of environment (with regard to osmotic pressure) can cause a cell to shrink and die?
What kind of environment (with regard to osmotic pressure) can cause a cell to swell or burst)
T/F: Green and purple pigmented bacteria use light as a source of part or all of their energy?
T/F: Few pathogens are killed by sunlight.
False; most pathogens are killed by direct sunlight
T/F: with complex media,the exact chemical composition is unknown.
What type of media was blood agar associated with?
Which type of media contains substances that favor or inhibit growth?
Which type of media was Sabouraud dextrose agar associated with?
When preserving cultures, what is the best way to store for decdes?
What is the term for "freeze-drying?"
When preserving cultures, what method is used for storing for years?