Exam 1 Part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 3 Deck (46):
1

Who created the system of classifying organisms based on characteristics in common using binomial nomenclature?

Linnaeus

2

What is binomial nomenclature?

Genus species

3

Who proposed a taxonomic approach on five kingdoms? what were the 5?

Whittaker; animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, and prokaryotae

4

Who proposed three domains as determined by ribosomal nucleotide sequences (rRNA) and what were they?

Carl Woese; eukarya, bacteria, and archaea

5

What kingdom are helminths in?

animalia

6

The shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer as separate entities is known as what?

Resolution

7

Differences in intensity between two object, or between an object and background is know as what?

Contrast

8

T/F: contrast is important in determining resolution and is increased by staining.

True

9

T/F: gram stain, acid-fast stain, and endospore stain are all considered special stains.

False; these are differential stains

10

T/F:crystal violet, safranin, methylene blue, and malachite green are all considered special stains.

False; these are simple stains

11

Negative (capsule) stain and flagellar stain are both special stains.

True

12

What is the term used for a group of bacteria that do not have the typical peptidoglycan cell walls?

Mycobacteria

13

What makes mycobacteria resistant to decolorization by acids during staining?

a high waxy mycolic acid content in their cell walls

14

What is another name for mycobacteria?

acid-fast bacteria

15

During the technique of Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Staining, what are the two possible results?

red (acid-fast) or blue (non-acid-fast cells)

16

What are the 3 steps of the Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Stain?

Red primary stains, Decolorize with alcohol, and counterstain with methylene blue

17

Why do red acid-fast cells retain their red color during decorizing with alcohol?

the acid cannot penetrate the waxy wall

18

What are the three steps of the Schaeffer-Fulton Endospore Stain?

primary stain with malachite green, decolorize with water, and counterstain with safranin

19

What are the two results of Endospore staining?

green-stained endospores and red-colored vegetative cells

20

What are dichotomous keys?

seried of paired statements where only one of two 'either/or" choices applies to any particular organism

21

What flesh-eating reemerging disease caused by a Group A Streptococcus Gram (+) bacteria was discussed in class?

Necrotizing Fascitis

22

An increase in the size of a population of microbes is known as what?

growth

23

What is a colony?

aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell

24

What is a biofilm?

collection of microbes in a complex community

25

T/F: Bacteria and Archaea can be considered photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, and chemoheterotrophs.

False; bacteria and archaea are not included in chempheterotrophs (might want to look over slide 68)

26

T/F: Microorganisms vary widely in their oxygen requirements for growth.

True

27

What is the most important factor (generally) affecting growth?

temperature

28

T/F: Psychrophillic organisms prefer high temps.

False, they prefer cold (crazy people like the cold)

29

T/F: Mesophilic organisms prefer moderate temperatures.

True (M for middle)

30

T/F: very few pathogenic organisms are mesophiles.

False, most are actually

31

T/F: Hyper Thermophilic organisms prefer cold temperatures.

False; these prefer high temps (hyper=higher)

32

What pH range do most microorganisms thrive in?

6-9

33

What pH do most animal pathogens work best near?

pH of 7

34

T/F: Vegetative cell maintenance and growth requires water.

True

35

What kind of environment (with regard to osmotic pressure) can cause a cell to shrink and die?

hypertonic

36

What kind of environment (with regard to osmotic pressure) can cause a cell to swell or burst)

hypotonic

37

T/F: Green and purple pigmented bacteria use light as a source of part or all of their energy?

true

38

T/F: Few pathogens are killed by sunlight.

False; most pathogens are killed by direct sunlight

39

T/F: with complex media,the exact chemical composition is unknown.

true

40

What type of media was blood agar associated with?

differential media

41

Which type of media contains substances that favor or inhibit growth?

Selective media

42

Which type of media was Sabouraud dextrose agar associated with?

selective media

43

When preserving cultures, what is the best way to store for decdes?

Lyophilization

44

What is the term for "freeze-drying?"

Lyophilization

45

When preserving cultures, what method is used for storing for years?

Deep-freezing

46

What method of preserving cultures is used for storing for short periods of time?

refrigeration