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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 3 Deck (46)
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1

Who created the system of classifying organisms based on characteristics in common using binomial nomenclature?

Linnaeus

2

What is binomial nomenclature?

Genus species

3

Who proposed a taxonomic approach on five kingdoms? what were the 5?

Whittaker; animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, and prokaryotae

4

Who proposed three domains as determined by ribosomal nucleotide sequences (rRNA) and what were they?

Carl Woese; eukarya, bacteria, and archaea

5

What kingdom are helminths in?

animalia

6

The shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer as separate entities is known as what?

Resolution

7

Differences in intensity between two object, or between an object and background is know as what?

Contrast

8

T/F: contrast is important in determining resolution and is increased by staining.

True

9

T/F: gram stain, acid-fast stain, and endospore stain are all considered special stains.

False; these are differential stains

10

T/F:crystal violet, safranin, methylene blue, and malachite green are all considered special stains.

False; these are simple stains

11

Negative (capsule) stain and flagellar stain are both special stains.

True

12

What is the term used for a group of bacteria that do not have the typical peptidoglycan cell walls?

Mycobacteria

13

What makes mycobacteria resistant to decolorization by acids during staining?

a high waxy mycolic acid content in their cell walls

14

What is another name for mycobacteria?

acid-fast bacteria

15

During the technique of Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Staining, what are the two possible results?

red (acid-fast) or blue (non-acid-fast cells)

16

What are the 3 steps of the Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Stain?

Red primary stains, Decolorize with alcohol, and counterstain with methylene blue

17

Why do red acid-fast cells retain their red color during decorizing with alcohol?

the acid cannot penetrate the waxy wall

18

What are the three steps of the Schaeffer-Fulton Endospore Stain?

primary stain with malachite green, decolorize with water, and counterstain with safranin

19

What are the two results of Endospore staining?

green-stained endospores and red-colored vegetative cells

20

What are dichotomous keys?

seried of paired statements where only one of two 'either/or" choices applies to any particular organism

21

What flesh-eating reemerging disease caused by a Group A Streptococcus Gram (+) bacteria was discussed in class?

Necrotizing Fascitis

22

An increase in the size of a population of microbes is known as what?

growth

23

What is a colony?

aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell

24

What is a biofilm?

collection of microbes in a complex community

25

T/F: Bacteria and Archaea can be considered photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, and chemoheterotrophs.

False; bacteria and archaea are not included in chempheterotrophs (might want to look over slide 68)

26

T/F: Microorganisms vary widely in their oxygen requirements for growth.

True

27

What is the most important factor (generally) affecting growth?

temperature

28

T/F: Psychrophillic organisms prefer high temps.

False, they prefer cold (crazy people like the cold)

29

T/F: Mesophilic organisms prefer moderate temperatures.

True (M for middle)

30

T/F: very few pathogenic organisms are mesophiles.

False, most are actually