Exam 1 Part 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 7 Deck (61):
1

The invasion of the host by a pathogen is known as what?

infection

2

What results if the invading pathogen alters normal body functions (aka morbidity)?

disease

3

What is the term for a microorganism's ability to cause disease?

pathogenicity

4

What is the term for how easy it is for an organism to cause disease?

virulence

5

What is the term for the degree of pathogenicity?

virulence

6

What is the term for the ability of a substance to stimulate the production of antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses?

antigenicity

7

T/F: signs are characteristics of disease felt only by the patient.

False; these are symptoms.

8

T/F: signs are manifestations of disease observed or measured by others.

True

9

T/F: signs are objective and symptoms are subjective

true

10

What is the term for a group of symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition?

syndrome

11

T/F: pain, chills, lethargy and itching are all signs.

False; these are symptoms

12

T/F: anemia, diarrhea, fever and swelling are all signs.

true

13

carcino-

cancer

14

col-, colo-

colon

15

dermato-

skin

16

-emia

pertaining to blood

17

endo-

inside

18

-gen, gen-

give rise to

19

hepat-

liver

20

idio-

unknown

21

-itis

inflammation

22

-oma

tumor or swelling

23

-osis

condition of

24

-patho, patho-

abnormal

25

septi-

literally, rotting; refers to presence of pathogens

26

terato-

defects

27

tox-

poison

28

What are the three parts of the triad/triangle of health?

host, agent, and environment

29

When the 3 parts of the triad of health are in balance, what results? when they are out of balance?

health; disease

30

Adhesion factors, biofilms, extracellular enzymes, toxins, and anitphagocytic factors are all what?

virulence factors-contribute to virulence

31

T/F: if a microorganism is unable to make attachment proteins it is avirulent.

true

32

What is formed when bacterial pathogens attach to each other?

biofilm

33

What secretes extracellular enzymes that dissolve structural chemicals in the body?

pathogens

34

What is the term for chemicals that harm tissues or trigger host immune responses that cause damage?

toxins

35

What are the two types of toxins mentioned in class that affect the virulence of infectious agents?

exotoxins and endotoxins

36

T/F: cytotoxins, neurotoxins, and enterotoxins are all endotoxins.

False; these are exotoxins

37

What is an example of Endotoxins mentioned in class?

lipid A

38

What prevents phagocytosis of infectious agents by the host's phagocytic cells?

antiphagocytic factors

39

What stage is between infection and the first signs/symptoms?

incubation period

40

What stage is a short period of generalized, mild symptoms?

Prodromal period

41

What stage is the most severe stage where signs/symptoms are most evident?

illness

42

What stage is considered the immune response or treatment to vanquish pathogens where the body slowly returns to normal?

decline

43

At what stage of infectious disease does the patient recover from illness, tissues get repaired, and the body returns to normal?

convalescence

44

What has a longer incubation period, cholera or influenza?

cholera

45

What has a longer incubation period, Tetanus or AIDS?

AIDS

46

T/F: earwax is considered a portal of exit.

True

47

T/F: breastmilk is sterile and therefore is not a portal of exit

false

48

Are fomites more involved in direct or indirect contact modes of transmission?

indirect

49

Waterborne, foodborne, fecal-oral, and bodily fluids are all what mode of transmission?

vehicle transmission

50

What are the two types of vector transmission?

biological or mechanical

51

T/F: parenteral transmission is the mode of transmission from mother to baby.

False; perinatal is the mode of transmission from mother to baby

52

What are the 5 modes of transmission?

contact, vehicle, vector, airborne, and perinatal

53

What are arthropod vectors?

animals that carry pathogens

54

T/F: biological vectors only carry the pathogen.

False; biological vectors serve as host for pathogen

55

T/F: biological vectors only carry the pathogen.

False; mechanical vectors only carry the pathogen.

56

What two classes of arthropod do disease vectors belong to?

arachnids and insects

57

What are the only arachnids that can be vectors?

ticks and mites

58

T/F: spiders are arachnid vectors.

False

59

What are the most important arachnid vectors?

ticks

60

What are the most important insect vectors?

mosquitoes

61

What are the most important and common of all vectors?

mosquitoes