Exam 3: Circulatory System 1: Blood and Vessels Flashcards Preview

Anatomy A-215 > Exam 3: Circulatory System 1: Blood and Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3: Circulatory System 1: Blood and Vessels Deck (28):
1

Blood (Intro Info)

-connective tissue
-ground substances is plasma

2

Plasma

-Contains water, antibodies, proteins, respiratory gases
-99% of blood

3

Formed Elements

-blood cells
-erythrocytes (red blood cells) 44%
-leukocytes (white blood cells) both
-platelets (thrombocytes)
-WBC's and platelets make up last 1% of total 45% of formed elements

4

Erythrocytes

-shaped like biconcave discs
-anuculate
-life span of about 120 days
-filled with hemoglobin
-function: transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

5

Breakdown of old Erythrocytes

-broken down by spleen and liver and parts are recycled
-old broken down
-components like heme and iron sent back to red bone marrow to make new erythrocytes

6

Leukocytes (WBC'S)

-typically larger than erythrocytes
-function: generate an immune response, fight infection, etc
-able to slip out of capillary blood vessels (diapedesis)

7

Neutrophils

-most numerous type of leukocyte
-cytoplasm has fine pale granules
-nucleus is multilobed (3-5)

8

Eosinophils

-type of leukocyte
-cytoplasm contains prominent granules that stain reddish
-nucleus is bilobed

9

Basophils

-make up less than 1% of all leukocytes
-cytoplasm contains big granules that stain blue/purplish
-bilobed nucleus

10

Lymphocytes

-type of leukocyte
-cytoplasm lacks visible granules
-contains large, round dark purple nucleus, surrounded by a thin ring of pale blue cytoplasm
-most located in lymphatic tissues
-different kinds: T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and natural kill cells

11

Monocytes

-largest leukocyte
-cytoplasm lacks visible granules
-pale blue cytoplasm
-c-shaped or kidney-bean shaped nucleus

12

Mnemonic for Leukocytes

Never (neutrophil)
Let (lymphocyte)
Monkeys (monocyte)
Eat (eosinyphil)
Bananas (basophil)
-from most to least common

13

Platelets

-cytoplasmic fragments from larger cell
-anucleate
-limited life span ~5 days
-very small
-function: blood clotting

14

Arteries

-take blood away from heart and to other tissues
-transport blood high in oxygen (exception; pulmonary arteries)
-wall structure: thicker than veins, lumen smaller than that of corresponding vein, retain circular shape
-blood pressure is higher in arteries than in veins

15

Veins

-take blood to heart
-transport blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide (exception: pulmonary veins)
-wall structure: thinner than artery, larger lumen than artery, walls tend to be collapsed when not filled with blood
-blood pressure is lower in veins

16

Capillaries

-tiny vessels that connect arteries and veins
-responsible for gas and nutrient exchange between blood and tissues

17

Pathway of Blood

-heart-->elastic arteries-->muscular arteries-->arterioles-->capillaries-->venules-->veins-->heart

18

Tunica Externa

-outermost layer of blood vessels
-areolar connective tissue
-largest layer in veins
-Ex: aorta, and major branches of it
-send blood to smaller muscular arteries

19

Tunica Media

-middle layer of blood vessels
-circularly arranged smooth muscle fibers
-largest layer in arteries
-sympathetic innervation typically causes vasoconstriction (narrows blood vessel walls, increases blood pressure)

20

Elastic Arteries

-largest diameter
-vessel wall contains large amounts of elastic protein fibers
-aorta

21

Muscular Arteries

-less elastic fibers than elastic arteries and more smooth muscle in tunica media
-most named arteries (radial, ulnar)
-send blood to arterioles
-medium sized diameter

22

Arterioles

-smallest diameter
-tunica media consists of 6 or fewer layers of smooth muscle

23

Capillaries

-vessel diameter is only slightly larger than the diameter of an erythrocyte
-have just tunica intima
-form capillary beds
-gas/nutirent exchange happens here

24

Venules and Vens

-low pressure
-take blood back to heart
-tunica externa is thickest layer

25

Venules

-collect blood from capillaries
-travel next to arterioles
-merge to form veins

26

Veins

-formed when venules unite
-take blood back to heart
-most but not all veins have valves (prevent backflow of blood)

27

Muscular Pumps

-also help blood be pushed in veins toward heart
-contraction of skeletal muscles
-ex: gastrocnemius and soleus pump blood from legs to heart
-if inactive, bedridden, long plane ride, blood could pool and clot in veins-->deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

28

Vericose Veins

-may occur when valves become incompetent/stop working
-blood pools in veins and makes them bulge