Exam 4: Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4: Urinary System Deck (33):
1

Urinary System Components, Functions

-kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
-urinary tract: ureters, bladder and urethra
-function: filter blood, and transport the liquid waste (urine) outside the body
-urinary tract transports the urine
-process of releasing urine: urination, or micturition

2

Why does blood need to be filtered?

-contiains waste products from (lymph, CSF, cells) and if you dont filter it you will die

3

What is urine?

-water, some ions (Na+, C+) ammonia, urea, uric acid, must dissolve these substances in water

4

Urinary System Innervation

-primarily autonomic nervous system
-only one musle is under voluntary control: external urethral sphincter in urogenital diaphragm

5

Kidneys External Gross Anatomy and Function

-posterior abdominal wall
-right lower than left because liver is directly above it
-kidneys reponsible for filtering blood and turning the filtrate into urine

6

Kidneys Internal Gross Anatomy

-outer cortex and inner medulla
-renal columns
-renal pyramids

7

Renal Columns

-extension of cortex that divide medulla into renal pyramids

8

Renal Pyramids

-portions of medulla (each kidney had 8-15)
-each drains into minor calyx, several of these form major calyx, major calyces drain int renal pelvis connected to ureter.

9

Blood Flow of Kidneys

-blood must supply nutrients to the kidney and be filtered by the kidney
-renal arteries-->segmental arteries-->interlobar arteries-->arcuate arteries-->interlobular arteries-->afferent arterioles-->glomerulus-->efferent arteriole-->peritubular apillaries/vasa recta-->interlobular veins-->arcuate veins-->interlobar veins-->renal veins

10

Renal artery

-receives arterial blood from aorta, high in oxygen here, blood is "dirty"

11

Interlobar Arteries

-travel in renal columns
-between lobes

12

Arcuate Arteries

-found at CORTEX-MEDULLA JUNCTION

13

Glomerulus

-each afferent arteriole brings blood here
-capillary ball
-blood is filtrated here so goes from dirty to clean (everything after is "clean" blood and everything before in blood flow is "dirty"
-still high in oxygen

14

Vasa Recta/Peritubular Capillaries

-peritubular capillaries are in cortex
-vasa recta is in medulla
-gas exchange happens here (everything before in blood flow is high in oxygen and everything after is low in oxygen)

15

Interlobular Veins

-in cortex

16

Arcuate Veins

-in cortex-medulla junction

17

Nephrons

-functional filtration unit of the kidney
-function: filters blood and then modifies this "filtrate" that is squeezed out from glomerulus
-each kidney contains over 1 million nephrons

18

Nephron Composition

-Renal Corpuscle (Glomerulus + Glomerular Capsule)
-Proximal Convoluted Tubule
-Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle)
-Distal Convoluted Tubule
-most of nephron is in cortex (nephron loop goes into medulla)

19

Renal Corpuscle

-glomerulus plus glomerular capsule
-glomerular capsule surrounds the glomerulus
-apsular space: between capsule an dglomerulus, filtrate is squeezed into here, not yet urine, lots of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose

20

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

-function: to resorb some materials and water in the filtrate
-resorbed material is sent to the peritubular capillaries

21

Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle)

-function: to resorb more materials and water in the filtrate
-resorbed material is sent to the vasa recta

22

Distal Convoluted Tubule

-last segment of nephron
-function: to resorb more materials and water in the filtrate
-resorbed material is sent to the peritubular capillaries

23

Flow of Filtrate/Urine

filtrate is squeezed out of glomerulus, enters capsular space (space in glomerular capsule)-->proximal convoluted tubule-->nephron loop--> distal convoluted tubule-->the filtrate travels through the collecting duct-->minor calyx (now urine)-->major calyx-->renal pelvis-->ureter--> urinary bladder-->urine exits the body via the urethra

24

ADH Note

-ADH acts on DCTs and collecting ducts
-if dehydrated, ADH signals these structures to resorb more water
-alcohol inhibits/interferes with ADH secretion

25

Ureters General Description and Function

-long, thin, paired muscular tubes
-function: transport urine (via peristalsis) from kidney to urinary bladder

26

Why do ureters use peristalis instead of just gravity?

-not always in anatomical position and urine would pool in kidneys if lying down or upsidedown

27

Layers of Ureters

-Mucosa: transitional epithelium
-Muscularis: 2 layers of smooth muscle
-Adventitia: areolar connective tissue

28

Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones)

-formed from crystaline materials (e.g. salts, Calcium, uric acids) in urine
-pain is sharp and stabbing (called ureteric colic)
-Risk factors: dehydration/inadequate fluid intake, dome diet/medical issues

29

Urinary Bladder General Description and Function

-function: urine reservoir (muscular storage sac for urine)
-its shape changes as it fills: empty: pyramidal in shape in pelvic cavity, full: oval, extends into abdominal cavity (to belly button)
-neck of the bladder = narrow base of bladder

30

Layers of Bladder

-Mucosa: transitional epithelium
-Submucosa: dense irreg CT
-Muscularis: 3 layers of smooth muscle: together, these layers are known as the detrusor muscle
- internal urethral sphincter, involuntary sphincter
- Adventitia: areolar CT

31

Urethra General Morphology and Function

-single muscular tube running from bladder to exterior of body
-function: expels urine from body
-urethra pierces a group of skeletal muscles called the urogenital diaphragm
-some of the skeletal muscle fibers thicken and form an external urethral sphincter (around urethra), voluntary sphincter able to control when you become toilet trained

32

Female Urethra

-1.5 inches long

33

Male Urethra

-8 inches long
-transports urine and semen but can't do both at the same time