Exam 4: Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy A-215 > Exam 4: Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Female Reproductive System Deck (39):
1

Gonads

-ovaries

2

Accessory Reproductive Organs

- uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia, and mammary glands

3

Puberty

-anterior pituitary releases FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (Luteinizing hormone)

4

Ovary

-functions: mature, house, and release oocytes (sex cells), produce female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

5

Ovary External Anatomy

-each is oval shaped
-within pelvic cavity

6

Ovary Internal Anatomy

-has an outer cortex and an inner medulla
-medulla contains blood vessels
-cortex contains ovarian follicles
-ovarian follicles consist of an oocyte (egg) plus follicle (or granulosa) cells that surround the oocyte

7

Primordial Follicle

-in female fetus and female child ovary
-primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicle cells

8

Primary Follicel

-first seen at puberty
-primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicle (granulosa) cells

9

Secondary Follicle

-first seen at puberty
-primary oocyte + follicle (granulosa) cells + antrum (fluid-filled space)

10

Vesicular Follicle

-first seen at puberty
-typically only one of these produced each month and will undergo ovulation

11

Ovulation

-process where a seconday oocyte is expelled from ovary
-caused by a spike or peak in LH

12

Corpus Luteum (function)

-ruptured follicle that underwent ovulation
-yellowish
-function: secretes estrogen and progesterone to build up uterine lining
-limited lifespan

13

Corpus Albicans:

-degenerated corpus luteum
-white CT scar

14

Oogenesis Before Birth (Fetal Period)

-ovary contains oogonia (oocyte"stem cells" or 'parent cells') oogonia contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
-primary oocytes are oogonia that start the process of Meiosis!! (meiosis process is "arrested" at Prophase I)
-so before birth, the ovary will contain primarily primordial follicles (which have primary oocytes in them!)

15

Oogenesis During Childhood

-ovary is inactive

16

Oogenesis During Puberty

-anterior pituitary secretes FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone): stimulates follicle development

17

Each Month from Puberty to Menopause

-about 20 primordial follicles develop into primary follicles
- some primary follicles degenerate, while others become secondary follicles
-one secondary follicle becomes "dominant" and matures into a vesicular follicle

18

Vesticular Follicle in oogenesis

-is the primary oocyte completes Meiosis I, but gets stopped at Metaphase II of meiosis
-at this point, you now have a secondary oocyte!

19

Ovulation in oogenesis

-happens at about day 14 because of a peak in LH levels
-the structure expelled is a secondary oocyte
-this oocyte is still suspended at metaphase II - it will not complete meiosis UNLESS it becomes fertilized by a sperm!

20

After Ovulation

-FSH and LH levels decline
-ruptured ovarian follicle becomes a corpus luteum
-corpus luteum eventually becomes a corpus albicans

21

If woman does not get pregnant

-10-13 days after ovulation corpus luteum degenrates
-estrogen and progesterone levels drop
-menstruation occurs

22

If woman does get pregnant

-Fertilized oocyte secretes hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
-prolongs corups luteum life for 3 months
-after 3 months placenta produces estrogen and progesterone

23

Uterine Tubes

-paired tubes that attach to the uterus
-each uterine tube is close to (but not attached to) the ovary!
-at the ends of each tube are fimbriae: finger like projections that catch the oocyte
-functions: pick up oocyte and transports it to uterus, site of fertilization of oocyte

24

Tubal Pregnancy

-fertilized ovum implants in the uterine tube instead of
-severe cramping, potential bleeding by week 8
-threatens life of mother if it ruptures

25

Uterus

-function: site of implantation and development of fertilized oocyte
-when a fertilized oocyte doesn't implant, it is the site for menstruation (shedding of part of the uterine wall)

26

Uterus Gross Anatomy

-single, pear-shaped organ, in pelvic cavity
-cervix: inferior portion of uterus, projects into vagina

27

Perimetrium

-outermost layer
-visceral peritoneum + areolar CT

28

Myometrium

-middle layer
-THICKEST layer
-3 layers of smooth muscle

29

Endometrium

- innermost layer
-highly vascular
-columnar epithelium and CT
-fertilized oocyte implants here
-it is subdivided into 2 sublayers: functional and basal

30

Basal Layer

-the deeper layer immediately adjacent to the myometrium
-this is a permanent layer

31

Functional Layer

-it will grow and develop during the ovarian cycle
-if a fertilized oocyte doesn't implant, this layer is shed during menstruation (menses)

32

Why does menstruation occur?

-when corups luteum degenerates, levels of estrogen and progesterone DROP.
-functional layer breaks down

33

Vagina

-muscular tube that opens to the outside
-lies behind bladder, and in front of rectum
-lined with nonkeretinized stratified squamous epithelium
-functions: expells a baby, receives penis, during sexual intercourse, menstruation

34

Mons Pubis

-fatty, rounded area covered with pubic hair

35

Labia Majora

-two elongated, skin folds between legs - covered with pubic hair
-homologous to: scrotum of male

36

Labia Minora

thin, hairless skin folds
-between the labia minora are: urethral orifice (opening), vaginal orifice (opening), openings for the greater vestibular glands, clitoris

37

Greater Vestibular Glands

-function: secrete mucus as a lubricant
-homologous to: penis (glans)

38

Clitoris

-anterior to the urethral orifice
-homologous to: contains two columns of erectile tissue (corpora cavernosa)

39

Mammary Glands

-apocrine glands
- each mammary gland has glandular tissue, adipose tissue, and ligaments to connect it to thoracic wall
function: to produce milk for a baby
-lactation = breast milk production
-prolactin: stimulates milk production
-oxytocin: EXPELS the milk in response to a stimulus (baby suckling/crying)