Exam 3: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Respiratory System Deck (42):
1

Respiration

-process of gas exchange in the body

2

Inhalation

-breathing in, inspiration

3

Exhalation

-breathing out, expiration

4

Respiratory Subdivisions

-conduction portion
-respiratory portion

5

Conducting Portion

-conducts and transfers air, no gas exchange here
-nose and paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles to the terminal bronchioles

6

Respiratory Portion

-gas exchange occurs here
-respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

7

Functions of Respiratory System

-respiration/gas exchange (oxygen inhaled, carbon dioxide exhaled)
-filters inspired air
-warms and humidifies inspired air
-phonation
-olfaction

8

Filters Inspired Air

-noes hairs trap particles
-goblet cells secrete mucus to trap materials
-cillia moves material away from lungs

9

Warms and Humidifies Inspired Air

-mucosa of nasal cavity
-paranasal sinuses do this
-blood vessels in mucosa warm air
-moisture from mucus

10

Phonation

-laryns (voice box)
-paranasal sinuses
-nasal cavity
-sinuses and nasal cavity provide a resonance to the voice

11

Olfaction

-upper poriton of nasal cavity has olfactory epithelium (psuedostratified cilliated columnar epithelium plus bipolar neurons)
-odor molecules dissolve in mucus to be detected

12

Nose

-has nostrils (external nares)

13

Nasal Cavity

-internal nose
-subdivided by a nasal septum (ethmoid vomer and cartilage)
-floor: hard and soft (bony) palate (muscular)
-pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithalium
-superior part: olfactory epithelium + bipolar neurons of CNS
-functions: warm/humidify air, olfaction, filter air, phonation

14

Lateral Side of Nasal Cavity

-3 pairs of bones (turbinate bones)
-superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae
-function: create air trubulance: help swirl air around nasal cavity to help warm and humidify air by keeping it in the nose longer

15

Paranasal Sinuses

-paired cavities/spaces within some of the skull bones that connect to the nasal cavity
-maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal
-functions: lighten skull bones, warm and humidify air, provide resonance to voice
-don't fully form till after puberty

16

Pharynx

-throat
-connects the nasal cavity and mouth, to the larynx and esophagus
-contains several groups of tonsils
-subdivided into nasopharyns, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

17

Nasopharynx

-directly behind the nasal cavity
-inferior/lower border is soft palate
-pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
-only air normally travels through here
-contains openings for auditory (eustachian) tubes

18

Oropharynx

-from the soft palate to the hyoid bone
- directly behind the oral cavity
-both air and food travel in here
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

19

Laryngopharynx

-from hyoid bone to the superior border of esophagus
-transports both food and air
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

20

Larynx

-anterior to exophagus (food tube) in neck
-voice box
-functions: phonation, transports air to/from trachea
-contains many different cartilages connected together by ligaments (tyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, arytneoid)

21

Thyroid Cartilage

-forms anterior and lateral walls of larynx
-V shaped
-Laryngeal prominence more prominent in males

22

Cricoid Cartilage

-a ring of cartilage underneath thyroid cartilage and directly above trachea

23

Epiglottis

-spoon shaped cartilage at top of larynx
-function: closes over larynx when we swallow

24

Vocal Folds

-left and right
-true vocal cords
-attach from arytenoid to thyroid cartilage
-sound is produced when the cords vibrate against the pressure of air
-more air being forced through the larynx - louder sound
-longer=lower tones=tighter
-shorter=higher tones=looser

25

Trachea

-connects to larynx superiorly
-travels from the neck into the thorax, where it splits into left and right primary bronchi
-composition: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage

26

Why does change occur in chronic smokers lining turns into stratified squamous?

-protective
-consequence: no cilia/mucus so smokers cough is necessary to clear the trachea

27

Pleura

-serous membrane
-secretes serous fluid
-parietal pleura: lines thoracic wall
-visceral pleura: covers lungs
-pleural cavity: between parietal and visceral pleura
-serous fluid in pleural cavity

28

Blood Supply to Lungs

-pulmonary arteries carry blood low in oxygen from (RV-->pulmonary trunk-->pulmonary arteries-->LA) heart to the lungs
-pulmonary veins carry blood high in oxygen back to the heart (LA)

29

Surface Anatomy of Lungs

-right lung: superior, middle, and inferior lobe
-left lung: superior and inferior lobe

30

Bronchial Tree

-as inhaled air travels in tubes, they get progressively smaller
-epithelium and composition of tubes changes
-largest bronchi have pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium - this epithelium changes to cuboidal and then to simple squamous epithelium as you travel down
- cartilage disappears in the smaller tubes, and is replaced by smooth muscle in the bronchioles

31

Conduction Portion of Bronchial Tree

-left and right primary bronchi
-secondary (lobar) bronchi
-tertiary (segmental) bronchi
-bronchioles

32

Primary Bronchi

-one goes to each lung
-lined with psuedostratified cilliated columnar epithelium
-these structures are outside the lung
-irregular plates of cartilage
-once they enter the lung they divide into secondary

33

Secondary (Lobar) Bronchi

-go to one lobe of each lung
-irregular cartilage plates
-3 in right 2 in left

34

Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi

-supply one specific segment of the lung (bronchopulmonary segments)
-still have some cartilage
-segmental bronchi divide into smaller bronchi and these smaller bronchi divide into bronchioles
-psuedostratified cilliated columnar epithelium

35

Bronchioles

-no cartilage here
-cartilage is replaced by smooth muscle (when contracts-->bronchoconstriction-parasympathetic, when loosens-->bronchiodialation-sympathetic)
-last generation of bronchioles in conducting portion are terminal bronchioles

36

Respiratory Portion

-gas exchange occurs
-respiratory bronchiles
-alveolar ducts
-alveoli

37

Respiratory Bronchiles (Tissue)

-simple cubodal epithelium

38

Alveolar Ducts (Tissue)

-simple squamous epithelium, good for diffusion

39

Alveoli

-smallest units of respiratory portion
-simple squamous epithelium

40

Bronchitis vs. Pneumonia

-similarities: both cause inflammation of part of respiratory passageways
-differences: bronchitis is inflamed bronchi, caused by infection or exposure to irritants like smoking. pneumonia is inflamed alveoli cause by infection, respiratory membrane thickens and fluid/leukocytes fill alveoli

41

Function of Tonsils

-provide first line of defense against pathogens in air, food or drink

42

Respiratory Membrane

-simple squamous epithelium of the alveolus and the simple squamous epithelium of a pulmonary capillary