Exam 3: Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Cranial Nerves Deck (16):
1

Cranial Nerves

-12 pairs
-directly off brain
-can carry any of the following (or combos thereof) sensory axons, somatic motor axons (voluntary) parasympathetic motor axons (ANS, involuntary)

2

CN I Olfactory

-sensory axons only
-function: smell
-olfactory nerves synapse (exchange a nerve impulse with another neuron) in olfactory bulb
-olfactory bulbs connect to olfactory tracts
-test for nerve damage: test smell

3

CN II Optic

-sensory axons only
-function vision
-optic nerves travel to optic chiasm
-test for nerve damage: test vision

4

Optic Chiasm

-some axons from left and right optic nerves cross here
-makes it so each eye can transmit nerve impulses to both sides of the brain

5

Optic Tracts

-carry info from BOTH eyes to ONE side of brain

6

CN III Oculomotor

-somatic motor and parasympathetic motor axons
-functions: somatic motor supplies 4 eye muscles (superior inferior and medial rectus and inferior oblique) and a muscle in the upper eyelid (levator palpebrae superioris)
-test for nerve damage: does pupil constrict? does person's upper eyelid droop? does person have diplopia (double vision)

7

CN IV Trochlear

-somatic motor axons only
-function: supplies superior oblique
-test for nerve damage: diplopia?

8

CN V Trigeminal

-somatic motor and sensory axons
-functions: somatic motor-muscles of mastication (masseter temporalis medial and lateral pterygoid) sensory-anterior part of scalp, entire face, nasal cavity, oral cavity, teeth, cranial meninges-responsible for brain freeze
-test for nerve damage: move jaw/chew, touch face

9

CN VI Abducens

-innervates muscle that abducts eye
-somatic motor axons only
-function: supplies lateral rectus
-test for nerve damage: have patient move eye laterally, diplopia?

10

CN VII Facial

-controls muscles of face
-somatic motor, sensory, and parasympathetic motor axons
-functions: somatic motor-muscles of facial expression, sensory-taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue, parasympathetic motor-stimulates secretion of lacrimal gland and most salivary glands
-test for nerve damage: smile, frown, wink. taste something. dry mouth? do eyes tear when ammonia near eye?

11

CN VIII Vestibulocchlear

-sensory axons only
-functions: hearing and equilibrium
-test for nerve damage: hearing loss or deafness? is person experiencing vertigo, lack of balance, dizziness, nausea/vomiting?

12

CN IX Glossopharyngeal

-contains somatic motor, sensory, and parasympathetic motor axons
-sore throat pain transmits via this nerve
-functions: somatic motor to one pharynx (throat) muscle. sensory-part of pharynx, touch and TASTE sensation on posterior 1/3 of tongue. parasympathetic motor-stimulates secretion to parotid (salivary) gland
test for nerve damage: cant really isolate motor function so test other two. dry mouth? taste on back of tongue

13

CN X Vagus

-somatic motor and parasympathetic motor axons
-functions: somatic motor-supplies most pharynx (swallowing) muscles and larynx (voice box) muscles. parasympathetic motor-supply muscel in heart, lungs, most abdominal organs.
-test for nerve damage: difficulty swallowing? have hoarse voice, permanent loss of voice, monotone voice?

14

CN XI Accessory

-somatic motor axons only
-functions: innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
-test for nerve damage: shrug shoulders, turn head and flex neck

15

CN XII Hypoglossal

-somatic motor axons only
-functions: supplies intrinsic tongue muscles and most extrinsic tongue muscles
-test for nerve damage: stick out tongue (tongue deviates to one side indicates nerve damage)

16

Pneumonic

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