Exam 4: Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4: Endocrine System Deck (28):
1

Endocrine gland

-secretes hormones into bloodstream.

2

Hormone

-chemical messenger that regulates activity of other body cells.
-hormone levles constantly adjusted by feedback loops.

3

Negative Feedback Loop

-a stimulus causes an endocrine organ to release hormones
-the hormone helps bring the body back to homeostasis
-once homestasis is achieved, the hormone release stops

4

Endocrine System

-all endocrine glands in body
-overseen by hypothamus

5

Hypothalamus' Control (3 Ways)

-produces regulatory hormones that stimulate or inhibit anterior pituitary hormone secretion
-produces ADH and oxytocin and are stored in posterior pituitary
-oversees ANS, stimulates hormone secretion of adrenal medulla via sympathetic innervation

6

Pituitary Gland

-connected to hypothalums via infundibulum
-split into anterior and posterior

7

Posterior Pituitary

-axons from hypothalamus cells
-stores two hormones produced by hypothalamus: oxytocin and ADH

8

Oxytocin

-cuddling/trust hormone
-stimulates uterine contractions/ induces labor (menstrual cramps)
-stimulates breast milk release in response to suckling infant
-males: stimulates smooth muscle contraction in reproductive tract

9

ADH

-diuresis = urine production
-inhibits urine formation/production
-concentrates urine
-ADH targets the kidneys and blood vessels
-secreted when dehydrated
-tells kidneys to concentrate urine by reabsorbing more water
-blood vessels constrict to increase blood pressure

10

Anterior Pituitary

-VP of endocrine system, controlled by hypothalamus
-controls growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL)

11

Growth Hormone (GH)

-stimulates cell growth and mitosis in most cells
-especially affects skeletal and muscular systems, and adipose tissue
-anterior pituitary-->secretes GH-->targets muscle, bone, fat

12

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

-targets thyroid gland
-stimulates thyroid to produce/release its own hormones
-anterior pituitary-->secretes TSH-->targets thyroid gland-->secretes TH

13

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

- target organ: adrenal cortex
-stimulates adrenal cortex to release its hormones
-anterior pituitary-->secretes ACT-->adrenal cortex-->secretes hormones

14

Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH)

-target organs: ovaries and testes
-anterior pituitary-->secretes FSH-->targets onads

15

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

-target organs: ovaries and testes
-anterior pituitary-->secretes LH-->targets gonads

16

Prolactin (PRL)

-target organs: mammary glands
-stimulates breast milk production
-anterior pituitary-->secretes PRL-->targets mammary glands

17

Thyroid Gland

-anterior to trachea and inferior to larynx
-secretes thyroid hormone (TH) anad calcitonin

18

Thyroid Hormone (TH)

-increases cellular activity (metabolic rate) in most cells of body
-hypothalamus-->anterior pituitary-->secretes TSH-->targets thyroid gland-->secretes TH

19

Calcitonin

-encourages deposition of calcium from bloodstream into bone tissue
-secreted when blood calcium levels are high
-lowers blood calcium levels
-increases bone deposition

20

Parathyroid Glands

-4 tiny oval masses behind thyroid
-secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) when blood calcium levels are low
-increases blood calcium levels
-stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone, release calcium into blood

21

Adrenal Glands

-superior to kidneys
-have outer cortex and inner medulla

22

Adrenal Cortex

-releases corticosteroids in response to ACTH
-one group of these steroids: controls balance of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in body fluids (regulates salt)
-another (2nd) group of steroids stimulates metabolism of glucose from fats and proteins (regulates blood sugar levels)
-another (3rd) group of these steroids: secretes small amounts of androgens (male sex hormones)
-in females, some androgens are converted to estrogen (regulates sex)

23

Adrenal Medulla

-stimulated by sympathetic division of ANS
-secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
-prolongs "fight or fligh" response by sympathetic innervation
-hypothalamus-->sympathetic innervation-->adrenal medulla-->epinephrine and norepinephrine

24

Pancreas

-has both exocrine and endocrine functions
-exocrine functions were discussed w/digestive system

25

Pancreatic Islets

-produces hormones
-Insulin and glucagon
-helps convert some glucose into glycogen (a carbohydrate)

26

Insulin

-lowers blood sugar (glucose) levels, enhances cells ability to pick up glucose
-secreted when you eat a meal

27

Glucagon

-raises blood sugar levels
-breaks down glycogen into glucose
-secreted when you haven't eaten in a while

28

Gonads

-ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
-testes produce androgens (especially testosterone)