Exam 4: Pregnancy and Labor Flashcards Preview

Anatomy A-215 > Exam 4: Pregnancy and Labor > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Pregnancy and Labor Deck (18):
1

Hormonal Changes

-hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
-produced by zygote
-early pregnancy tests detect this
-increase in first trimester, then drops off
-estrogen levels rise
-progesterone levels rise
-after 1st trimester placenta is main producer of estrogen and progestrone

2

Uterus and Mammary Glands

-enlarge
-massive growth of uterus
-fundus (top) of uterus at level of xifoid process of sternum

3

Weight Gain

-due to enlargement of uterus/mammary glands, growing fetus, and placenta (~20 lbs max), fluid accumulation, fat deposits

4

GI Tract Changes

-morning sickness
-heartburn
-constipation

5

Cardiovascular System Changes

-increased blood volume in mother
-potential for varicose veins because of problems with venous circulation late in pregnancy

6

Urinary System Changes

-1st trimester expanding uterus pushed down on bladder
-3rd trimester baby pushes on bladder
-makes a woman feel like she always has to pee

7

Labor

- refers to the series of events that push/expel the infant out of the mother's body

8

False Labor (Braxton Hicks contractions)

-irregular smooth muscle contractions of uterus - does NOT lead into the 3 stages of true labor

9

True Labor

-regular smooth muscle contractions of uterus that increase in intensity and frequency
-consists of 3 stages
-oxytocin initiates/continues labor
-length of labor is highly variable

10

Dilation Stage

-1st stage of labor from the onset of labor to complete dilation of the cervix
-cervix dilates to 10 centimeters in diameter
-amniotic fluid is expelled ("water breaks")
-average length is 6-12 hours
-pressure from fetal head stimulates dilation

11

Expulsion Stage

-2nd stage of labor from complete cervical dilation to delivery of baby
-lengthy varies could be hours

12

Placental Stage

-3rd stage delivery of placenta
-occurs within 5-30 minutes after delivery of baby

13

Changes in Mother Postpartum

-loss of excess fluids gained during pregnancy
-lactation
-contraction/shrinkage ofuterus
-hormonal changes

14

Fluid Loss

-expulsion of amniotic fluid during birth
-more frequent urination for about a week
-increased sweating fro 1-2 weeks
-discharge of lochia

15

Lochia

-postpartum period
-much heavier bleeding than typical period
-lasts 2-3 weeks (sometimes up to 4-6)

16

Lactation

-prolactin: milk production
-oxytocin: stimulates milk release and causes uterus to contract and shrink

17

Contraction/Shrinkage of Uterus

-6 weeks after birth, uterus shrinks to pre-pregnancy size.
-oxytocin facilitates uterus shrinkage
-"afterpains" are uterine contractions after birth

18

Hormonal Changes Postpartum

-estrogen and progesterone levels drop dramatically
-possible cause of "baby blues" or postpartum depression
-prolactin levels rise as you breastfeed