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Flashcards in export_bact exam 6 2011 Deck (91):
1

Considered to be the cause of Tyzzer's disease in horses

Clostridium piliforme

2

Cause of Toxicoinfectious botulism in horses

Clostridium botulinum Type B

3

This agent produces a toxin (labeled epsilon toxin) that causes damage to and symptoms associated with the central nervous system in cattle

Clostridium perfringens Type D

4

This agent has been associated with the condition in adult dairy cattle called Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome

Clostridium perfringens Type A

5

You are a wildlife vet in the Northwest. You are studying the cause of death of 3,000 birds in some shallow ponds near watercourses. The major symptom you saw was a flaccid paralysis w/out recovery in the birds. One bacteria know to cause this type of disease in the Northwest is ______?

Clostridium botulinum Type C

6

Animal: 3 yr old QH
Symptoms: Uncontrolled paroxysmal spasms of major muscle masses brought on by random stimulus leading to a temporary ridged paralysis
Lesion (live animal): Nail wound in foot

Clostridium tetani

7

This agent produces a toxin (labeled beta toxin) that causes a necrosis of intestinal epithelium in neonatal calves

Clostridium perfringens Type C

8

This agent is associated with the disease Acne in humans

Propionibacterium acnes

9

Agent commonly isolated from 'Diphtheria' in cattle

Fusobacterium necrophorum

10

Animals: Group of 50 yearling cattle in North Dakota (on pasture)
Symptoms: Sudden death in 2 animals
Necropsy (1 animal): Blood didn't clot, enlarged spleen
Laboratory: Large spore-forming gram positive rod grew on primary aerobic culture

Bacillus anthracis

11

These 2 species of bacteria act as synergistic agents in pathogenesis of acute foot rot (interdigital phlegmon) in cattle

Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii

12

Bacteria from this black-pigmented obligately anaerobic genus are commonly associated with Periodontal disease in dogs

Porphyromonas

13

Animal: Neonatal calf
Symptoms/Lesions: Sudden death, SI had signs of necrotic bloody enteritis
Lab: Large gram positive rods observed in direct manner

Clostridium perfringens Type C

14

The obligately anaerobic species is the most common anaerobe isolated from dog lesions

Clostridium perfringens Type A

15

Animal: Well-nourished 3 wk old foal in Kentucky
Symptoms: Generalized flaccid paralysis of major skeletal muscle masses; foal fails to respond to stimuli
Lesions (foal died): Gastric ulcers were observed

Clostridium botulinum Type B

16

Two bacteria from 2 different genera that are considered by the CDC to be Class A bioterrorism agents

Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum Type A

17

Animal: 6 day old foal in MO
Symptoms: Sudden death
Lesions: Multiple foci of hepatic necrosis
Lab: Negative culture on aerobic blood agar
Histopathology: Silver stain of liver lesion, large filamentous bacteria arranged in parallel fashion in hepatocytes

Clostridium piliforme

18

This bacterial species originally included all the Black-pigmented anaerobic bacteria

Bacteroides melaninogenicus

19

This Clostridial agent which produces 2 cytotoxins designated at Toxin A and Toxin B has been implicated as a cause of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in young foals

Clostridium difficile

20

2 genera of obligately anaerobic spirochetes

Brachyspira and Treponema

21

These 2 agents act as synergistic agents in the pathogenesis of Contagious Digital Epidermatitis (chronic foot rot) in sheep

Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum

22

2 genera of gram negative non-sporeforming obligately anaerobic rods that do not produce black pigment

Dichelobacter and Fusobacterium (I think this is correct)

23

Bacteria commonly associated with Canine Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis

Clostridium perfringens Type A

24

This agent produces a toxin that will cause a generalized rigid spastic paralysis of skeletal muscle in affected horses

Clostridium tetani

25

Animal: Yearling, well-nourished steer in MO
Symptoms: Sudden death
Lesion: Gas bubbles under skin of left hind leg, large dry dark area in muscle of the leg
Diagnosis: Blackleg

Clostridium chauvoei

26

The cause of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) in cattle

Clostridium novyi
*This answer has been fixed*

27

This agent is the cause of anthrax in humans

Bacillus anthracis

28

This species of gram positive spore-forming rod was originally associated with antibiotic 'induced' (overgrowth) digestive tract disease in humans. Subsequently it was identified as a cause of the same type of disease in laboratory animals and has recently been identified as a cause of severe hemorrhagic necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal foals

Clostridium difficile

29

Fever, anemia, hemoglobinuria were observed in 4 cows from a herd of 50 Holstein cows in WI. Lesions (1 cow died) of anemia and a large liver infarct were seen at necropsy. Large gram positive spore-forming rods were isolated from liver on anaerobic culture.

Clostridium haemolyticum

30

This agent produces a toxin that causes a generalized flaccid paralysis in ducks and other avian species when ingested from environmental sources.

Clostridium botulinum Type C

31

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

32

You have submitted a tissue specimen to a diagnostic laboratory.  You request that they stain a histopathologic slide specifically for the cell wall of fungi. They would probably use this stain.

Periodic-Acid-Schiff Stain

33

2 compounds used in anaerobic culture systems as indicators of Eh

Methylene Blue and Resazurin

34

This compound is a component of the cell wall of bacteria but not of fungi.

Peptidoglycan

35

These glycosphingolipids are components of the cell plasma membrane which modulate cell signal transduction events

Gangliosides

36

A crunching crackling sensation that is felt with gas production by bacteria in tissues

Crepitation

37

Used in anaerobic culture systems as a reducing agent

Teichoic acid

38

Term for an infection acquired by an animal during residence in a veterinary hospital

Nosocomial infection

39

This biochemical pathway is the major energy producing pathway in facultatively anaerobic bacteria but is not present in obligately anaerobic bacteria

Krebs cycle

40

Compound found in the core of endospores that may be responsible for its environmental resistance.

Dipicolinic acid

41

Used in anaerobic culture systems as a catalyst

Palladium

42

These proteins are important in electron transport in the absence of oxygen

Flavodoxins

43

Used in anaerobic culture systems as a growth stimulant

Carbon dioxide

44

Product containing specific inactivated exotoxins and used for immunization of animals against those exotoxins

Toxoids

45

Term that is used to express oxidation reduction potentials

Eh

46

Term that would describe the method of reproduction of Clostridium perfringens Type A

Binary fission

47

How would Fusobacterium necrophorum be classified in regards to utilization of oxygen in their environment

Obligately anaerobic bacteria

48

Term referring to a level of disease that is above the usual level for an animal population

Epidemic

49

If an animal died due to a lack of oxygen in his system, we would say the animals died of _____?

Anoxia

50

This compound is the plasmalemma is the target of several antimicrobials

Ergosterol

51

This biochemical pathway is responsible for anaerobic glycolysis (fermentation) of glucose

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

52

Compound used by the pharmaceutical industry to test for the presence of pyrogens in pharmaceuticals

Limulus Amebocyte Lysate

53

In classification, to which 'Domain' do the bacteria belong

Bacteria

54

Term referring to severe problems with breathing

Dyspnea

55

Term meaning 'the animal is straining during defecation'

Tenesmus

56

The name used for the fungal structure that corresponds to the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria

Plasmalemma

57

Bacterial infections that are characterized by pus formation and abscesses

Pyogenic

58

An intoxication due to ingestion of toxic metabolites produced by the action of certain molds on some food products

Mycotoxicosis

59

Inflammation of the muscles

Myositis

60

Drug of choice to treat a Clostridium difficile infection in a horse

Metronidazole

61

Drug of choice for treatment of clostridial myositis in a dog

Ampicillin

62

Trimethoprim is used as a 'potentiator' in combination with this drug

Sulfadiazine

63

This antifungal agent should not be used in cats b/c it may cause serious liver toxicity

Ketoconazole

64

Drug of choice for treatment of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle

Vancomycin
(This years notes state that there is no treatment.)

65

This agent must be used with caution in cats b/c use above 5 mg/kg can cause retinal degeneration

Enrofloxacin

66

Drug of choice for treatment of Tyzzer's Disease in a horse

Antimicrobials do not work/fit the given description

67

2 antimicrobials which are commonly used to treat bacterial infections but which are unlikely to work against anaerobic bacteria

Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin

68

Drug of choice for treatment of Anthrax in a horse

Ampicillin

69

You wish to vax a horse for long-term prevention (active immunity) of tetanus

Commercial toxoid

70

You have an owner who wishes to prevent Necrotic Abomasitis in his calves

Commercial toxoid

71

You have an owner who wishes to vax his cows to prevent neonatal enterotoxemia in his calves

Commercial bacterin toxoid combination

72

You have an owner who wishes to prevent Tyzzer's Disease in his horses

None of the immunizing products listed would be effective or are not available for the described situation

73

You have an owner who wishes to vax his mares to prevent toxicoinfectious botulism

Commercial toxoid

74

You have an owner who wishes to prevent periodontal disease in his dogs

Commercial bacterin or whole culture bacterin

75

You have an owner who wishes to vaccinate to prevent Anthrax in his cattle on pasture

Commercial modified or avirulent live vaccine

76

You have an owner who wishes to prevent Blackleg in his feedlot steers

Commercial bacterin or whole culture bacterin

77

You have just castrated a horse with an unknown vaccination history. You wish to prevent tetanus.

Commercial antitoxin

78

You have an owner who wishes to prevent disease caused by Clostridium difficile in his horses.

None of the immunizing products listed would be effective or are not available for the described situation

79

List mechanism of diarrhea: 
Enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens Type C infection in a neonatal calf

Increased permeability

80

List mechanism of diarrhea:
Nutritional diarrhea in an orphaned foal fed milk replacer

Osmotic effects with subsequent malabsorption

81

List mechanism of diarrhea:
Rotavirus infection in a calf

Malabsorption due to villous atrophy

82

List mechanism of diarrhea:
Food poisoning in humans due to Clostridium perfringens Type A

hypersecretion

83

The inciting lesions allowing bacterial overgrowth in Canine Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis are probably due to this toxin

Endotoxins

84

The cells mainly responsible for intestinal absorption of fluids are:

Non-proliferative mature villous epithelium

85

There are 3 protein fractions that compose the exotoxin of Bacillus anthracis. What fraction in necessary for the activity of the other 2 fractions.

Protective antigen

86

Doxycycline, in regards to site of action in the bacteria, affects:

Process of Translation

87

Doxycyline, in regards to use in the patient, and action on the bacteria are:

Bacteriostatic and Time dependent

88

What is the most important procedure in the routine confirmation of a diagnosis of Tyzzer's Disease in a foal?

Demonstration of bacteria on histopathology

89

The best tissue (considering all factors) for bacteriological culture to send to a diagnostic laboratory from an 800-pound dead steer that you suspect has anthrax would be:

Jugular blood sample

90

How would you classify disease caused by Clostridium botulinum?

Intoxication without major infections

91

In clostridium haemolyticum infections in cattle the major site of infection is the:

Liver