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Flashcards in export_laundry exam 4 2010-2 Deck (91):
1

At necropsy of 2 pigs with CNS symptoms, you observed edema of eyelids and edema of submucosa along the greater curvature of the stomach. What is the probable etiologic agent?

Escherichia coli

2

Principal cause of Sylvatic plague in cats

Yersinia pestis

3

This Salmonella serotype is the most common serotype isolated from poultry

Salmonella Enteritidis

4

This agent, associated with wood product bedding, is a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle

Klebsiella pneumoniae

5

This Salmonella serotype, host adapted to swine, is a cause of septicemia and pneumonia often without an associated enterocolitis

Salmonella Choleraesuis

6

This Salmonella serotype is the cause of Typhoid fever in humans

Salmonella Typhi

7

This Salmonella serotype is the principal cause of Salmonella food poisoning in humans from poultry sources

Salmonella Enteritidis

8

This agent causes hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans

Escherichia coli O157:H7

9

This Salmonella serotype is the principal cause of Salmonella food poisoning in humans from mammalian sources

Salmonella Typhimurium

10

This Salmonella serotype, host-adapted to cattle, is the cause of abortion in cattle

Salmonella Dublin

11

This Salmonella is the most common serotype associated with disease in dogs in the U.S.

Salmonella Typhimurium

12

This agent causes a lesion in humans known as a "bubo" which is a very painful enlargement of the lymph nodes

Yersinia pestis

13

This Salmonella servar, host adapted to swine, is a cause of chronic necrotic enterocolitis

Salmonella Typhisuis

14

This agent is a CDC Category A potential bio-terrorism agent

Yersinia pestis

15

This Salmonella serotype, the most common serotype isolated from horses, is a cause of acute enterocolitis with high death loss

Salmonella Typhimurium

16

These bacterial species are known as Coliforms (name 3 from 3 different genera)

Enterobacter aerogenes,
Escherichia coli,

Klebsiella pneumoniae

17

The type of Escherichia coli associated with Edema Disease in swine

Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC)

18

This type of Escherichia coli directs the mucosal cells to form a pedestal for the E. coli to perch on

Attaching and Effacing E. coli (AEEC)

19

The type of Escherichia coli associated with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in humans

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

20

This type of Escherichia coli is most commonly involved in food poisoning in humans such as "Traveler's Diarrhea"

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

21

The type of Escherichia coli associated with Neonatal Colibacilosis in swine

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

22

Porins that would expel antimicrobials from the bacterial cell

efflux pumps

23

Chemicals used to prevent growth or destroy potential pathogens on body surfaces

antiseptics

24

Term referring to the destruction of potentially pathogenic microorganisms by chemical means

Disinfection

25

The term for antimicrobial action in which the use of two antimicrobials increases the level of activity above the level of activity for either one alone

synergistic antimicrobials

26

This process refers to the transfer of genes b/w bacteria via bacterial viruses

transduction

27

The term in disease treatment for the drug type that inhibits bacterial multiplication but bacteria are not killed

bacteriostatic antimicrobials

28

The concentration of an antimicrobial that will prevent bacteria replication in vitro

minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

29

Plasmids that carry genes coding for bacterial resistance 

R-factors

30

The term for the modular DNA sequences encoding for antimicrobial resistance that are carried and transferred b/w integrons

gene cassettes

31

These are genes that are capable of transferring copies of themselves and associated genes to a new site within a replicon or to different relicons (e.g. b/w different plasmids or the chromosome)

transposons 

32

Enzymes responsible for resistance of Gram positive bacteria to penicillins

Beta lactamases

33

The use of this compound by bacteria in Purine synthesis is the target of the Trimethoprim type of antimicrobials

Dihydrofolic acid

34

To be clinically effective, this type of antimicrobial must maintain a blood level that is greater than the MIC for duration of treatment

Time dependent antimicrobials

35

Term for the antibiotic effect on bacteria after the antibiotic is no longer in the system

Post antibiotic effect (PAE)

36

Complete destruction of all microorganisms by physical means or chemical means

sterilization 

37

Major adhesions antigen

F antigens

38

Capsular antigens

K antigens

39

Flagellar antigens

H antigens

40

Heat stable enterotoxin

not designated 

41

lipopolysaccharide (antigen on E. coli)

O antigen

42

Mechanism of enteritis due to Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 in humans

increased permeability of the intestinal wall

43

mechanism of nutritional diarrhea in an orphaned foal fed milk replacer

osmotic effects with subsequent malabsorption 

44

mechanism of diarrhea of parvovirus infection in a young dog

malabsorption due to villous atrophy 

45

Mechanism of diarrhea from enterotoxigenic E. coli in a neonatal calf

active hypersecretion of water an electrolytes 

46

A positive test separates the Proteus-Providencia group from the rest of the Enterobacteriaceae

Lysine Deaminase reaction

47

Highly selective media used for isolation of Salmonella from feces

Brillian green agar

48

A positive test indicates metabolism of tryptophan

indole test

49

Media used to determine if bacterial isolates would have either of these biochemical pathways: Pentose Phosphate Shunt or Entner-Duodoroff pathway

Oxidative-Fermentative media

50

Major biochemical test used to separate gram negative bacteria into two major groups

oxidase test

51

Test used to determine the gram reaction of a bacterial isolate

KOH test

52

Used to determine if a bacterial isolate produces acetoin

VP test

53

Major biochemical test used to separate the gram positive cocci into two major groups

catalase test

54

Enrichment broth used for isolation of Salmonella from contaminated specimens 

selenite medium

55

Medium used for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial specimen

Meuller Hinton agar

56

family - chloramphenicol

acetamides 

57

family - amphotericin B

none of the above (antifungal)

58

family - vancomycin

glycopeptides

59

family - ceftiofur

cephalosporins

60

family - amikacin

aminoglycosides

61

family - fluconazole

azoles

62

family - polymyxin B

polypeptides

63

family - azithromycin

macrolides

64

family - clindmycin 

lincosaminides 

65

family - enrofloxacin 

fluoroquinolones

66

Villous atrophy as occurs with some of the major intestinal virus diseases of animals such as Rotavirus causes a diarrhea primarily due to:

malabsorption 

67

In relationship to growth in the presence of oxygen, Salmonella would be classified as:

facultatively anaerobic 

68

According to current knowledge, how would we rate hypermotility in the small intestine as a cause leading to diarrhea in animals?

Hypermotility is not known to be a major primary or contributing cause of diarrhea

69

In cats, Salmonella infection can usually be characterized as:

a carrier state without clinical disease

70

This drug, when given orally (and even systemically) to a horse, will often suppress the normal flora and thus allow overgrowth of a Salmonella in the digestive tract resulting in an often fatal salmonellosis.

Chlortetracycline

71

This drug can cause a totally non-treatable fatal aplastic anemia in humans

chloramphenicol

72

This drug is associated with a condition called keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs

Sulfadiazine 

73

This macrolide drug used to treat cattle and swine is known for having significant toxicity on accidental injection in humans (cardiac problems and death)

Tilmicosin

74

This drug must be used with caution in young horses b/c of its propensity to cause potentially debilitating lesions in developing cartilage 

enrofloxacin 

75

This agent must be used with caution in cats b/c use above 5 mg/kg can cause retinal degeneration

enrofloxacin

76

This drug can cause a hypersensitivity in humans. When given to a individual that is hypersensitive, it can cause hives or even fatal anaphylactic shock

amoxicillin 

77

The FDA has forbidden off label use of these 3 antimicrobials in food animals b/c of potential human health problems

chloramphenicol,
enrofloxacin,

vancomycin

78

The term coliform bacteria are identified as those members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that are:

lactose positive

79

Certain virulence factors are considered to be necessary for Escherichia coli to be called Enterotoxigenic (ETEC). These factors include the ability to:
a) adhere to intestinal mucosa

b) cause villous atrophy

c) invade intestinal mucosa causing bacteremia

d) produce shiga toxins

a

80

The principal means by which Yersinia pestis is spread through susceptible populations is by:

the bite of infected fleas

81

What is the only validly named species of Salmonella in the following list?
a) S. arizonae

b) S. enterica

c) S. enteritidis

d) S. newport

e) S. typhimurium

b

82

A description of the family Enterobacteriaceae would be as follows: gram __, oxidase ___, shape

gram negative,
oxidase negative,
non-spore forming rods

83

Antibodies produced by vaccines using the Siderophore Receptor and Porin (SRP) technology work b/c the disrupt:

iron metabolism in the bacteria

84

The cells mainly responsible for intestinal absorption of fluids are:

non-proliferative mature villous epithelium 

85

Rough mutants used for vaccination to control endotoxemia have a deficiency in which of the following parts of the lipopolysaccharide:

outer variable oligosaccharide region

86

Cephalosporins, in regards to use in the patient, and action on the bacteria are:

bacteriocidal and time dependent 

87

Cephalosporins, in regards to site of action in the bacteria, affects:

cell wall synthesis

88

Doxycycline, in regards to use in the patient, and action on the bacteria are:

bacteriostatic and time dependent

89

Doxycycline, in regards to site of action in the bacteria, affects:

process of translation

90

What is the antimicrobial of choice for treatment of a Yersinia pestis infection in cats?

gentamicin 

91

Aminoglycosides, in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria, are: 

bacteriocidal and concentration dependent