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Flashcards in export_bact 5 Deck (216):
1

grow as mononucleated single cells, pathogenic yeasts reproduce by budding (called blastospores), may produce elongated forms that resemble hyphae (pseudohyphae), colony is typically “moist”

Yeast

2

grow as multicellular and multinucleate filamentous colonies, reproduce by sporulation, body: hyphae (may be septate or aseptate)

Mold

3

occur in both mold and yeastforms

Dimorphis fungi

4

method of reproduction for fungi (the processof forming spores)

sporulation

5

the tubular, branching, multinucleatestructures that form the “body” of the mold

hyphae

6

hyphae having crosswalls

septate hyphae

7

few or no crosswalls

aseptate hyphae

8

a mass of interwoven hyphae

mycelium

9

sexual reproductive (perfect)state of fungi

Teleomorph

10

asexual reproductive (imperfect) state offungi

anamorph

11

large (usually greater than 4x12 microns)multi-celled spores, the large spores that are producedby Microsporum canis that are so characteristic that they aid in speciesidentification

Macroconidia

12

small (usually less than 5 microns) one-celledspores

microconidia

13

asexual spores produced by segmentation(fragmentation) of hyphae (characteristic of Coccidioides immitis innature and the dermatophyte in vivo), the term for thetype of fungal spores that are produced by segmentation of the hyphae

arthrospores

14

asexual spores produced by budding from amother yeast cell (e.g. Cryptococcus neoformans ), thetype of spores that are produced from Cryptococcus neoformans

blastospores

15

main component of cell wallof fungi , N-acetyl glucosamine residues, the periodic-acid-schiff stain is useful for its ability tostain this compound

chitin

16

D-glucose resides

glucan

17

cytoplasmic membrane, contains ergosterol, the name for the fungal structure that corresponds to thecytoplasmic membrane of bacteria

plasmalemma

18

majorsterol in cytoplasmic membranes, alters permeability, thiscompound is in the plasmalemma but not in mammalian cell structures

ergosterol

19

The type of spores that are produced by yeasts are called

blastospores

20

Dimorphic fungi have the ability to grow inthese two fungal forms

Mold & Yeast forms

21

Hyphae with crosswalls

Septae

22

Sexual reproductive ( perfect ) state offungi

teleomorph

23

The type of fungal spores that are produced by segmentation of thehyphae are

arthrospores

24

Term used in reference to Arthrospores being formedinside the hair shaft

endothrix

25

Term used in reference to Arthrospores beingformed outside the hair shaft

ectothrix

26

This compound is a structural component of thecell wall of fungi but not of bacteria

chitin

27

The name used for the fungal structure thatcorresponds to the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria

plasmalemma

28

This compound is in the Plasmalemma but not inmammalian cell structures

ergosterol

29

The Plasmalemma is equivalent to what structure in bacteria

cytoplasmic membrane

30

The type of cell structure characteristic of the fungi

eukaryotic

31

toxic mushrooms belong to this class of fungi

Basidiomycetes

32

most members of deuteromycetes are placed in this class when their “perfect state” is delineated

Ascomycetes

33

this form class contains most of the fungi pathogenic to animals

Deuteromycetes ( Fungi imperfecti)

34

The Domain to which the fungi belong

Eukarya

35

The kingdom to which the fungi belong

Fungi

36

The toxic mushrooms belong to this class of fungi

Basidiomycetes

37

Most members of Deuteromycetes are placed in the class when their"perfect state" is delineated

Ascomycetes

38

This Form class contains most of the fungi pathogenic to animals

Deuteromyecetes

39

Most of the pathogenic fungi as isolated from animals have been placedin this subdivision of the fungal classification system

DEUTEROMYCOTINA(Deuteromycetes)

40

This agent, a common cause of "Phycomycosis", may not be afungi but may be a member of the kingdom Protista

Pythium insidiosum

41

This "fungus" does not have chitin in the cell wall

Pythium insidiosum

42

intoxicationdue to ingestion of toxic metabolites that are produced by the action ofcertain molds in some food products

Mycotoxicosis

43

produce aflatoxinsthus causing aflatoxicosis, genus of fungi is one ofthe genera commonly implicated in mycotoxicosis , most common fungal species isolated from guttural pouch mycosis in thehorse Term

Aspergillus

44

produces aflatoxins, mostprobable exudate in a nasal discharge in a dog presenting with a nasaldischarge 

Aspergillus flavus

45

An infection that involves the epidermal layers of skin, hair and nails

Dermatophytosis

46

A subcutaneous granulomatous abscess thatspreads to adjacent soft tissue, fascia and bone

Mycetoma

47

An intoxication due to ingestion of toxicmetabolites produced by the action of certain molds on some food products

Mycotoxicosis

48

These two genera of fungi are commonly implicated in mycotoxicosis

Aspergillus &Fusarium

49

This species of fungi is known to produce toxins which causemycotoxicosis in animals

Aspergillus fumigates

50

What is the major target organ in acute aflatoxin poisoning in animals?

liver

51

used to visualize capsulesof yeasts

India ink

52

best stain to visualize fungi from culture growth

Lactophenol CottonBlue

53

the best way to visualizethe fungal cell wall in histopathology

Periodic-Acid-Schiff (P.A.S.) stain

54

base media used to growfungi

Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar

55

antibiotic present in Sabouraud’s DextroseAgar, inhibits nonpathogenic fungi

Cycloheximide

56

almost specific for isolation ofdermatophytes, contains antibiotics: cycloheximide, gentamicin, andchlortetracycline, indicator: phenol red, red color indicates alkaline

Dermatophyte test medium (DTM)

57

The best stain to visualize the fungal cellwall in histopathology

PAS

58

You have submitted a tissue specimen to a diagnostic laboratory.   You request that they stain a histopathologicslide specifically for fungi.   They wouldprobably use this stain

Periodic-Acid-Schiffstain

59

The periodic-acid-Schiff stain is useful forstaining fungi because it reacts specifically with this compound in the fungalcell wall

chitin

60

You are taking a skin scraping for culture ofa dermatophyte from a dog.   What is therecommended incubation temperature for this specimen?

25 C

61

The base media usually used to grow fungi

Sabourauds Dextrose Augar

62

This drug is commonly added to media used togrow pathogenic fungi to keep other contaminating fungi from growing

Cycloheximide

63

The best stain to visualize fungi from culturegrowth

Lactophenol Cotton Blue

64

Used to visualize capsules of yeasts

India ink

65

termused by physicians to refer to a fungal infection of keratin in specific bodyareas

Tinea

66

termused for dermatophytes whose major source to the animal is the soil

Geophilic

67

humansare the maintaining host of these types of dermatophytes

Anthropophilic

68

the large spores that areproduced by Microsporum canis that are so characteristic thatthey aid in species identification

Macroconidia

69

most common cause ofdermatophytosis in the cat

Species Microsporum canis

70

geophilic fungusspecifically affects the keratinized skin layers with subsequent diseasedevelopment in the dog

Species Microsporum gypseum

71

8 month old Yorkshire-crosspigs in Georgia with large scaly lesion on his sides clinically diagnosed withdermatophytosis is most likely infected with this fungi  

Species Microsporum nanum

72

this agent is the commoncause of skin disease involving only the dermal layers in horses

Species Trichophyton equinum

73

T erm used for dermatophyteswhose major source to the animal is the soil

geophilic

74

Humans are the maintaining host of these typesof   dermatophytes

anthropophilic

75

Animals are the maintaining host of thesetypes of   dermatophytes

zoophilic

76

Term used by physicians to refer to a fungalinfection of keratin in specific body areas (from PwrPt)

tinea

77

The large spores that are produced by Microsporum canis that areso characteristic that they aid in species identification are called

macroconidia

78

This dermatophyte is classified as geophilic

Microsporum gypseum

79

What is the pathological process responsible for the “ringworm” nature ofsome dermatophyte infections?

Lateral Growth of Fungus to avoid inflammatoryresponse

80

The major cause of dermatophytosis in cats

Microsporum canis

81

This dermatophyte is considered to be host-adapted to cats

Microsporum canis

82

Microsporum canis

- Symptoms:   Lesions of"scaling and patching" on head and paws

- Laboratory:   Direct mount of hairs in 30% KOH,arthrospores observed external to hair shaft

Microsporum canis

83

You have diagnosed a "ringworm" infection in a cat.   The client asks about the possibility oftransfer of the infection to her or her children.   You advised her that the "ringworm"in the cat, in regards to the possibility of transfer to humans, is:

a disease of highdanger to exposed individuals

84

This geophilic fungus specifically affects the keratinized skin layerswith subsequent disease development in the dog.

Microsporium gypseum

85

Most common cause of dermatophytosis in the dog

Microsporium canis

86

This keratinophilic fungus is host-adapted to the horse

Trichophyton equinum

87

Most common cause of dermatophytosis in cattle

Trichophytonverrucosum

88

Animals:   8 month oldYorkshire-cross pigs in Georgia  
- Symptoms:   Large scaly lesions onsides
-  ClinicalDiagnosis:   Dermatophytosis

Microsporium nanum

89

What is media are usually used for isolating the dermatophytes in aveterinary practice laboratory?

Saboraud’s dextroseaugar/ dermatophyte test media

90

Under what circumstances would you clip the hair of the animal?

Catteries, householdsw/ small children, elderly people or immunosuppresed people or long-haired cats

91

What is the author's favorite antimicrobial for treating cats?  

Iatroconazole

92

What is the major toxicity associated with ketoconazole in cats?

hepatotoxicity

93

Wood's Lamp Fluorescence is often helpful indetecting the presence of this dermatophyte

Microsporum canis

94

Medium most commonly used be veterinarians to culture dermatophytes.

DTM

95

What “signs” in DTM cultures indicate that the fungus growing on themedium is a Dermatophyte?  

The medium is red,the colony is white, the medium turns red at the time of 1 st visiblegrowth

96

You have a client that is having a continuing problem with dermatophyteinfections in her cats / dogs / horses. She wants to vaccinate to prevent the disease in her animals. You couldrecommend:

the products listedwould not be effective, are not available for the listed disease or should notbe used in this situation

97

What are the 3 major phases in treatment of a dermatophyte infection?

1) Remove organism fromouter layers of skin & hair,
2) Apply a topical agent
3) Systemic therapy

98

These two drugs from different families wouldbe most useful in treatment of a Microsporum canis infection in a cat.

Grisofulvin & Iatraconazole

99

This agent should not be used in pregnantqueens because it may cause teratogenic effect.

Griseofulvin

100

You are planning on treating a dermatophyte infection in a dog using anorally absorbed drug.   Two drugs commonlyused for this type of therapy are (twoanswers) :

Grisofulvin & Ketoconazole

101

blindness in the dog due toacute uveitis is commonly associated with acute infections with this dimorphicfungus

Blastomyces dermatitidis

102

a capsule and melanin arelargely responsible for the virulence of this fungi , this yeast is noted for the lack inflammatoryresponse seen in infected tissues when it spreads systemically , you have a cat that likes to hang out where the pigeons hangout – this cat is a good candidate to become infected with this agent

Cryptococcus neoformans

103

Fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum produce "granulomatousdisease" syndromes in the dog. The primary difference between thisgranulomatous response and other types of inflammatory responses seen withinfectious agents is that the granulomatous response:

is characterized by mononuclear type phagocyticcells

104

These 3 dimorphic fungi cause systemic disseminated disease in dogs.

Histoplasmacapsulatum, Coccidiodes immitis, Blastomyces dermatidis

105

Clinically, chronic disseminated blastomycosis \ histoplasmosis \ coccidioidomycosis in the dog is often characterized by:

bone infections - Blastomycosisand Coccidioidomycosis

intestinal infections - Histoplasmosis

106

All of the fungi listed below can be described as "dimorphicfungi" except :

Cryptococcusneoformans

107

What are the usual species that develop clinical disease with thesystemic fungi?  

humans & dogs

108

this dimorphic fungi has apropensity to localize in the digestive tract after systemic spread , the term “tuberculated macroconidia” isalways used in reference to this agent , mosthumans in Missouri have had a mild infection with this dimorphic fungus and aresensitive to the antigens on the skin test , largenumbers of spores from this fungus are in bat caves

Histoplasma capsulatum

109

The term “tuberculated macroconidia” is usedin reference to this agent.

Histoplasma capsulatum

110

The life form of Histoplasma capsulatum in tissue can best bedescribed as:

small (3.5 microns) buddingyeasts

111

Histoplasma capsulatum in the animal bodyis:

an obligateintracellular parasite

112

What is the ecological niche where Histoplasma capsulatum is located?

Soil Saprophyte

113

M ost humans in Missouri have had a mildinfection with this dimorphic fungus and are sensitive to the antigens on theskin test.

Histoplasma capsulatum

114

What host species are most commonly affected with clinical disease to Histoplasma capsulatum?

Humans, Dogs & Cats

115

Missouri is noted as a center of the endemic area forHistoplasmosis.   The majority of dogsexposed to the causative agent:

develop acutepulmonary disease

116

Animal :   2 year old boxer inMissouri (dog has not been out of Missouri)
- Symptoms :   Animal chronically losing weight.   Chronic cough present.   Auscultation indicates pneumonia is present
- Laboratory :   Radiographs indicate a diffuse interstitialpattern and hilar lymphadenopathy typical of fungal caused pneumonia

- Histopath :   Intracellular yeast cells were observed

Histoplasma capsulatum

117

This dimorphic fungus has a propensity tolocalize in the digestive tract after systemic spread .

Histoplasma capsulatum

118

Clinically, chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in the canine is oftencharacterized by:

intestinal infections

119

These two drugs from different families wouldbe most useful in treatment of an acute pneumonia caused by Histoplasmacapsulatum in the dog.

Amphotericin B & Ketoconazole

120

According to most authoritative sources, Histoplasmosis in the dog inregards to the possibility of transfer of the disease from infected dogs tohumans:

is of little zoonoticsignificance

121

known for itsnephrotoxicity is used to treat fungal infectionsmust be given be slowintravenous injection

Amphotericin B

122

used to treat fungal infections of the skin but should not be used for treatment of pregnant queens because of the potential for teratogenic  effects

Griseofulvin

123

Many of the drugs used to treat fungal infections affect ergosterol insome way.   What part of the fungal cellstructure would then be affected?   Whichdrugs affect egosterol?

Cytoplasmicmembrane - Amphotericin B, Terbinatine,Azoles

124

What is the site of activity of Griseofulvin in fungi?

Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis & cell mitosis

125

What is the major toxicity problem of Amphotericin B in dogs?

This drug, which is given by intravenous injection in the dog for fungal infections, is almost always associated with serious side effects including nephrotoxicity and anemia.

126

The most important side effect of Griseofulvin in the cat / AmphotericinB in the dog / Ketoconazole in the cat involves toxic effects on these organs:

kidneys - Amphotericin B


liver - Ketoconazole

teratogenic problems - Griseofulvin

127

Which would be the more toxic drug to cats:   Ketoconazole or Itraconazole ?   What organ is usuallyaffected in Ketoconazole toxicity in the cat?

Ketoconazole - Liver

128

blindness in the dog due toacute uveitis is commonly associated with acute infections with this dimorphicfungus

Blastomyces dermatitidis

129

A very large single budding yeast is the characteristic tissue form ofthis systemic fungus.

Blastomyces dermatitidis

130

What type of environmental habitat is associated with development ofBlastomycosis in dogs?

soil

131

What species are most commonly affected with clinical disease to Blastomyces dermatitidis?

humans & dogs

132

Clinically, chronic disseminated blastomycosis in the dog is oftencharacterized by (1 or 2 answers):

bone infections & draining skin lesions

133

Blindness in the dog due to acute uveitis is commonly associated withacute infections with this dimorphic fungus.

Blastomyces dermatitidis

134

Which of the listed fungi is most likely to cause an acute uveitis (with possible blindness) in affected dogs?

Blastomyces dermatitidis

135

Animal :   2 year old male Dobermanin Tennessee

- Symptoms and Lesions :   Ulcerativelesion of skin and subcutaneous tissue on the right leg.   Dog was losing weight.   Temperature was 104 o F

- Laboratory :   Direct smear (lacto‑phenol cotton blue),large single budding yeast (with "collar")

Blastomyces dermatitidis

136

A family dog has been diagnosed as having Blastomycesdermatitidis pneumonia. Knowing the public health significance of thisfungus you:

tell the family that the disease is probably not contagious to humansand recommend treatment if prognosis indicates treatment would be successful.

137

systemic disease with thisdimorphic fungus is characterized by bone lesions at the epiphyseal junction , spherule is the characteristic tissue from , natural habitat these pathogenic fungi are associated with rodentburrows in the southwestern deserts

Coccidioides immitis

138

The spherule is the characteristic tissue form of this fungal species.

Coccidioides immitis

139

The type of spores that are produced by Coccidioidesimmitis in nature

alternating arthrospores

140

What is the life form of Coccidioidesimmitis in tissue?

spherules

141

In their natural habitat these pathogenic fungi are associated withrodent burrows in the Southwestern deserts.

Coccidiodes immitis

142

T/F: Ecologically, this systemic fungus is only found in the desert southwestin the United States.

False - also found in Central and South America

143

What species are most commonly affected with clinical disease to Coccidioides immitis?

humans & dogs

144

What type of environmental habitat is associated with development of Coccidioidomycosis in dogs?

Semi-arid “Lower sonoranlife zone“

145

Systemic disease with this dimorphic fungus ischaracterized by bone lesions at the epiphyseal junction.

Coccidioides immitis

146

Clinically, chronic disseminated Coccidioidomycosis in the dog is often characterized by (1 or 2 answers):

bone infections & draining skin lesions

147

According to most authoritative sources, Coccidioidomycosis in the dog in regards to the possibility oftransfer of the disease from infected dogs to humans:

is of little zoonotic significance

148

a capsule and melanin arelargely responsible for the virulence of this fungi , this yeast is noted for the lack inflammatoryresponse seen in infected tissues when it spreads systemically , you have a cat that likes to hang out where the pigeons hangout – this cat is a good candidate to become infected with this agent

Cryptococcus neoformans

149

What 2 species of Cryptococcus are capsulated and thus most likely to be associated with disease conditions?

Cryptococcus neoformans & Cryptococcus gattii

150

A description of these two pathogens would be: capsulated single-budding monomorphic yeasts.  

Cryptococcus neoformans & Cryptococcus gattii

151

What type of spores are produced by Cryptococcusneoformans?

blastospores

152

What are the 2 major virulence factors of Cryptococcus neoformans?

Capsule - antiphagocytic
Melanin - impairsantibody formation

153

What is the major ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans?

Pigeon excreta (Urban centers)

154

You have a cat that likes to hang out wherethe pigeons hang out.   This cat is a goodcandidate to become infected with this agent.

Cryptococcus neoformans

155

What are the two major hosts affected by disease with Cryptococcus neoformans?

humans & cats

156

What species of animal is mostcommonly affected with clinical disease to Cryptococcus neoformans? 

cats

157

This yeast is noted for the lack of inflammatory response seen ininfected tissue when it spreads systemically.

Cryptococcusneoformans

158

One of the major manifestations of the disease"Cryptococcosis" as seen in its usual animal host often issymptomatically diagnosed as:

nasal granuloma

159

Animal :   4 year old Siamese cat inSt. Louis.   Lesion:   Nasal granuloma that was surgicallyremoved.
Laboratory :   Histopath, single budding capsulated yeastobserved with PAS stain

Cryptococcusneoformes

160

What is the major localization of infection in disseminated Cryptococcosis in cats ?  

Nasal Granuloma

161

A 5 year old domestic shorthair cat in Chicago showed signs of centralnervous system disease (the symptomatic diagnosis was meningitis).   On a direct smear of cerebral spinal fluid,single budding capsulated yeasts were observed with PAS stain. 

Cryptococcus

162

The tissue reaction seen in Cryptococcus meningitis of the catcan best be described as:

a diffuse granulomatous reaction with fewinflammatory cells.

163

The use of India Ink is a valuable tool in diagnosing infection withthis fungal agent.

capsule

164

What is the prognosis for resolution of disease in a cat with a nasalgranuloma?   In a cat with meningitis?

Nasal - good prognosis
Meningitis - poor prognosis

165

What drug in the azole family is commonly used in treatment of cats withCryptococcal meningitis?

Fluconazole

166

What species of monomorphic yeast has recently appeared as a seriouspathogen in the Pacific Northwest (Canada and United States)?

Cryptococcus gattii

167

What is the unique ecological niche of Cryptococcus gattii ?

Trees - Douglas fir, Red Cedar, Oak & Maple

168

thismonomorphic yeast is known to cause a greasy seborrhea with thickened skin

Malassezia pachydermatis

169

the term “cigar body” is usedas a descriptive term for the tissue phase of this agent

Sporothrix schenckii

170

These two yeasts are commonly isolated from the canine ear canal asnormal flora and in disease.

Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida albicans

171

New name for the fungus originally called Pityrosporum canis

Malassezia pachydermatis

172

This yeast is isolated from the ear canal andskin infections in dogs.

Malassezia pachydermatis

173

What is the usual ecological niche of Malasseziapachydermatis?

skin

174

How would you describe Malasseziapachydermatis?  

Monomorphic, yeast , non-capsulated

175

This monomorphic yeast is known to cause achronic moist dermatitis with a musty odor in dogs.

Malassezia pachydermatis

176

This monomorphic yeast is known to cause a g reasy seborrhea with thickened skin.

Malassezia pachydermatis

177

This drug is probable drug of choice for systemictreatment of serious Malassezia pachydermatis infections of the skin of dogs. 

Ketoconazole & Iatraconazole

178

The term “cigar body” is used as a descriptiveterm for the tissue phase of this agent.

Sporotrichum scheneckii

179

The disease Sporotrichosis as seen in thehorse is often symptomatically diagnosed as:

lymphangitis

180

The disease "Sporotrichosis" is most commonly seen in which of the listed animals?

horses

181

This agent causes an ulcerative lymphangitis in horses.

Sporotrichumscheneckii

182

What is the usual method by which animals are infected with Sporothrixschenckii?

implantation

183

What is the usual ecological niche of Sporothrix schenckii?

rotting materials

184

Describe the parasitic tissue phase of Sporothrixschenckii?

“cigar body”

185

This agent produces unique “flowerettes” in themycelial phase of growth.

Sporotrichum scheneckii

186

What is drug treatment of choice for Sporotrichosis in the horse?

iodides

187

Yeasty Beasties & Other Mycotic Issues :   Who are the “Yeasty Beasties”?

Malasieziapachydermatis

188

What is the most common underlying disease predisposing to Malassezia dermatitis?

Modified host defensemechanisms

189

What is the best means to detect Malassezia in lesions?

cytology

190

What are the systemic antimicrobials recommended for treatment of Malassezia dermatitis?

Ketoconazole, Iatraconazole, Fluconazole,Terbinatime.

191

genusof fungi is one of the genera commonly implicated in mycotoxicosis , most common fungal species isolated from guttural pouchmycosis in the horse

Aspergillus

192

most probable exudate in anasal discharge in a dog presenting with a nasal discharge  

Aspergillus flavus

193

mostcommonly cultured cause of a dog presenting with a disseminated fungal disease

Aspergillus terreus

194

disease caused by thisagent could properly be called zygomycosis

Mucor sp.

195

cause of pythiosis in dogs

Pythium insidiosum

196

spherule is the characteristictissue form of this fungi

Rhinosporidium seeberi

197

What must be demonstrated Histopathologically before a definitivediagnosis can be made of an infection with the monomorphic mycelial fungi?

Demonstration of hyphal elements invading thetissue

198

This monomorphic mycelial fungus causes serious problems in captive birdpopulations under stress.

Aspergillus fumigates

199

The usual cause of Canine DisseminatedAspergillosis.

Aspergillus terreus

200

This monomorphic mycelial fungus is the most common cause of mycotic abortionin cattle.

Aspergillis fumigatus

201

This is the most common agent isolated fromguttural pouch mycosis in the horse.

Aspergillus

202

Disease caused by this agent could properly becalled Zygomycosis.

Mucor sp.

203

This agent is the cause of pythiosis in dogs.

Pythium insidiosum

204

This agent, a common cause of the diseasesoften labeled "phycomycosis" is actually not a fungus but mayactually belong in the kingdom ___?___.

Protista

205

What type of disease is associated with Pythium insidiosum?

Pythiosis

206

What is the ecological niche associated with Pythium insidiosum?

Stagnant water

207

What is the infective stage of Pythiuminsidiosum to animals?

Motile zoospores

208

How effective are antifungal drugs in the treatment of pythiosis?

not very

209

What is the ecological niche associated with Rhinosporidium seeberi?

stagnant water

210

The tissue phase of Rhinosporidium seeberi consists of:

spherules

211

The spherule is the characteristic tissue formof these two fungal species.

Rhinosporidium seeberi and Coccidioides immitis

212

This agent causes large nasal polyps in horses.

Rhinosporidiumseeberi

213

Newdiagnostic tests for Pythiosis:   Whatdiagnostic tests are available for diagnosis of Pythiosis?

Sensitive & specificserologic, PCR, immunochemical tools

214

Equine Pythiosis:   What was the successful treatment regimen forthe Pythiosis infection in the horse in this article?  

Surgical and antifungal drugs

215

Pythiosis in Dogs:   What does the author say about the incidenceof Pythiosis in dogs in the United States?  

Not known but thenumber of cases have risen over 5 years.

216

What is the key element in having a successful outcome withimmunotherapy in dogs (and horses)?

Early diagnosis.

Horses>90% and Canine >50%.