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Flashcards in Eye Deck (69):
1

Draw and label a schematic of the eye

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2

Which structures make up the uvea? What is the function of these structures?

Iris - adjusts volume of light hitting the retina, ciliary body - lens shape, choroidea - vascular supply to the retina

3

What glands are associated with the eyelids?

Tarsal glands - sebaceous, Zeis - sebaceous, Moll - apocrine sweat gland, lacrimal

4

Anophlalmia

Absence of the eye

5

Microphalmia

Small sized eyes

6

Cyclopia

One central eye

7

Name an aetiological cause of cyclopia in lambs

V. californium within 14-15 days

8

Synophalmia

Two eyes fused into one

9

Dermoid

Focal nodule of skin on the cornea

10

Coloboma

Failure to close of the optic fissure

11

Aphakia

Absence of the lens

12

Hypopyon

Pus in the anterior chamber

13

Hyphaemia

Blood in the anterior chamber

14

Endophthalmitis

Inflammation of the internal structures of the eye

15

Panphthalmitis

Inflammation of all of the structures of the eye

16

Blepharitis

Eyelid inflammation

17

Internal Hordeolum

Purulent inflammation of the tarsal gland - STYE

18

Chalazion

Granulomatous inflammation of the tarsal gland

19

Dacryoadenitis

Inflammation of the lacrimal gland

20

Name four infectious causes of conjunctivitis.

BHV1, FHV1, Chlamidophyla psittaci, Mycoplasma felis

21

Describe the gross changes associated with bacterial/viral conjunctivitis.

IBR/FHV - serous-purulent +/- fibrin

Mycoplasma - pseudo-dyphteric

Chylamidophyla - unilateral

22

Which cause of conjunctivitis is associated with unilateral conjunctivitis in the cat?

Chylamidophyla

23

Describe the histological changes associated with bacterial/viral causes of conjunctivitis.

FHV - inclusion bodies in the first few days Mycoplasma - erosive, degenerative n#, coccoid bacteria Chylamidophyla - n#, mo, lpc and inclusion bodies

24

Name three non-infectious causes of conjunctivitis.

Dessication (

25

Describe the gross and histological changes associated with non-infectious conjunctivitis.

Gross - ulcerative margins Histo - Eosinophils +/- lymphocytes, hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia

26

Name two parasitic causes of conjunctivitis in the horse.

Draschia megastoma, Habronema microstoma

27

Describe the gross/ histo changes associated with parasitic conjunctivitis.

Gross - medial canthus, ulcerative nodules, oozing. Histo - granulomatous, eosinophils, larvae

28

Name three non-infectious causes of keratitis.

Physical - corneal trauma, ulcerative. Sunlight - pannus keratitis. Keratitis sicca - reduced tear film

29

Outline the pathogenesis of keratitis

Stromal imbibition (diffusion), secondary bacteria, neovascularisation, repair

30

Name three aetiological agents which cause keratitis.

FHV1, Moraxella bovis, mycotic (aspergillus, alternaria, penicillium)

31

Pink eye is also known as what? Caused by which bacteria?

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis Moraxella bovis

32

What aetiologies are associated with cataracts?

Physical, chemical, increased IOP, ageing, diabetes, inflammatory

33

How can diabetes cause cataracts?

Sorbitol induced oedema which interrupts lens architecture

34

What gross changes associated with cataracts?

Opacitation of the lens

35

What histological changes are associated with cataracts?

Loss of normal architecture, morgagnian globules, bladder cells

36

What are Morgagnian globules?

Degenerated lens fibres

37

Describe the types of lens luxation which can occur.

Anterior vs posterior, complete vs partial

38

Which type of lens luxation predisposes animals to glaucoma?

Anterior - blocked drainage angle

39

Name three viral causes of Uveitis.

FCV (FIP), CAV1, MCF

40

Name parasitic and fungal causes of uveitis

Cryptococcus, Toxocara canis

41

Uveitis caused by rupture of the lens is due to what?

Autoimmunity, phagoclastic uveitis

42

Describe this histological slide of a conjunctiva.

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Tissue has been infiltrated by eosinophilic cells (eosinophils) and lymphocytes, there are also multifocal areas of hyperaemia

Subacute moderate focal eosinophilic conjunctivitis

43

Eosinophilic conjunctivitis can occur as a result of which aetiological causes?

Dessication

Allergy

Idiopathic

44

Describe this lesion

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The normal architecture of the eye has been diffusely disrupted.

The retinal membrane has been focally extensively been detached from the choroid on the posterior side.

There are multifocal areas of haemorrhage and the lens has been displaced anteriorly. 

The cornea appears opaque and thickened with a diffuse loss of structure.

Acute diffuse severe ulcerative keratitis

45

Describe this lesion

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The cornea of this eye appears diffusely turbid and dry. There is a large degree of neovascularisation across the surface. The sclera and surrounding palpebral structures appear normal.

Chronic diffuse moderate to severe keratitis sicca

Cause - reduced tear film

46

Describe this lesion.

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The cornea of this eye appears diffusely thickened by a focally extensive nodule. The nodule is pale tan in colour and has an undulating surface, it is firm to handle and approximately 4x4cm. Shows ulceration on the surface.

Chronic diffuse severe ulcerative keratitis

47

These cells were isolated from an eyes lens. 

What are they? What condition of the lens are they associated with?

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Bladder cells - dysplastic bladder-like cells

Cataracts

48

What is shown in this slide taken from an eyes lens? 

What condition are they associated with?

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Morganian globules - degenerative lens fibres 

Cataracts

49

Describe this histological slide isolated from the uvea of a feline eye.

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Multifocally infiltrated with round pale, basophilic structures (resembling soap bubbles)

Mild infiltration with lymphoplasmacytic cells. 

Chronic multifocal moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic uveitis

Caused by cryptococcus

50

Describe this lesion

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Normal architecture of the is diffusely disrupted, the lens is focally ruptured and has been displaced into the posterior section of the eye. 

As a result the vitreous cavity has been severely reduced and the retina shows multifocal to diffuse detachment from the posterior choroid. The iris also shows mild thickening.

Diffuse severe chronic uveitis secondary to lens rupture which induces an autoimmune reaction

51

Which species of leptospira has been implicated in the development of equine recurrent uveitis?

Leptospira interogans var pomona

52

Describe these pathological changes

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Iris hyperplasia, the edge shows diffuse irregular fragmentation therefore leaving an irregular pupillary shape.

The conjunctiva on the dorsal aspect of the eye show a focal area of haemorrhage.

Subacute moderate to severe diffuse uveitis.

53

Which retinal abnormality are collies, labradors and samoyeds predisposed to?

Imperfect retinal development and therefore retinal dysplasia.

54

Retinitis in the cat can be caused by what protozoal agent?

Toxoplasma

55

Describe this lesion.

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The retina of the eye shows diffuse detachment from the posterior section of the eye. There are multifocal areas of haemorrhage found throughout. The largest being approximately 1 cm across with further 3-5 mm areas.

Acute diffuse moderate haemorrhagic retinitis

56

Name three causes of retinal degeneration.

  • Glaucoma - compression 
  • Nutritional: Vit A, C, E, taurin deficency
  • Toxic: Braken fern, Mycotoxin 
     

57

Define Glaucoma.

An occular condition determined by the prolonged increase in intraoccular pressure due to increased quesous humour damage

58

Define Goniodysgenesis.

Imperfect trabecular degeneration - leads to imperfect drainage of the aqueous humour.

Causes - imperfect pectinate ligaments or trabecular hypoplasia

59

What aetiological causes lead to secondary glaucoma?

Synechia - lens>iris adhesion

Inflammatory - uveitis

60

What is shown here?

Q image thumb

Decreased drainage between the iris and lens.

Leads to decreased drainage of aqueous humour -> glaucoma

61

What sequelae may be expected with an incidence of glaucoma?

Chronic purulent ulcerative keratitis

Buphthalmos - bulgy eye

62

Describe this lesion

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The dorsal and ventral palpebrae and conjunctiva have multifocal-coelescing nodular swellings approximately 5-15mm large. They are firm to handle and are pale tan to black in colour. The tip of the dorsal mass shows petechial haemorrhage. 

Palpebral epithelioma of the meiobian glands

63

What is the function of meibomian gland?

It is a modified sebaceous gland of the eyelid which secretes meibum (prevents evaporation of the tear film)

64

Describe this lesion.

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The conjunctiva of the eye shown has developed a focal, large (4x4cm) white irregularly shaped mass. It is compressing the posterior structure and disrupts the normal architecture of the eye.

The nodule shows poor demarcation and an infiltrative pattern of growth.

Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma

65

Describe this lesion.

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The uvea of the eye has developed a firm, focal, brown, oval nodular structure (4x3cm). The mass has severely distrupted the interoccular architecture which has been displaced laterally. The mass is well demarcated & is encapsulated?

Uveal melanoma

66

Which area of the eye could an adenoma/ adenocarcinoma develop from?

Non-pigmented ciliary body

67

A cat is presented with a unilateral patchy, hyperpigmented iris.

Which neoplastic cause could be suspected?

Diffuse iris melanoma

68

This eye tumour causes complete destruction of the globe.

Intraoccular sarcoma

69

Retrobulbar tumours can originate from which structure of the head?

What gross changes in the anatomy may be seen?

Muscular, connective tissue, glandular, neural, lymphoidal.

Leads to protrusion of the bulb and compression of the globe