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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (64):
1

Ectopia cordia

Heart develops outside the body cavity, due to incomplete body compartments

2

Amorphus globosus

Acardiac monster attached to the placenta. Spherical, covered in hair

3

Patent ductus arteriosus

Foetal remnant which connects the aorta and pulmonary artery. 

Blood shunts from aorta to pulmonary artery therefore leading to pulmonary hypertension.

Usually degenerates to the Ligamentum arteriosum

4

Sequelae to PDA

Right ventricular hypertension due to pulmonary hypertension

5

Patent foramen ovale

Hole which allows blood from the right atrium to by-pass the lungs during gestation

6

True septal defect

A hole (fault) in the septum between heart chambers.

Can be interatrial or interventricular.

With ventricular shunts are from left to right and lead to equal pressures in the chambers:

  • Volume overload and eccentric hypertrophy in the right atrium
  • Pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy in the left atrium

 

7

Pulmonary stenosis

Valvular lesions which are associated with muscle/fibrous tissue deposition:

  • Subvalvular - beneath the valve
  • Valvular - valve itself

Leads to pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Also jet lesions in the pulmonary artery.

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8

Subaortic stenosis

Below the aortic valve a zone of circumferencial fibrosis.

Made up of proliferating mesenchyme, mucin and metaplastic cartilage.

Leads to pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Also myocardial necrosis and fibrosis may be observed.

9

Tetralogy of fallot

  1. Ventricular septal defect
  2. Pulmonic stenosis
  3. Dextroposition of the aorta - aorta straddles right and left ventricles
  4. Secondary hypertrophy of the rght ventricle

Baby blue syndrome - cyanosis

10

Valvular haematoma

Haemocyst/ lymphocyst - generally regress

11

Persistent right aortic arch

Ligamentum arteriosum forms a ring around the oesophagus and trachea.

Leads to cranial megaoesophagus - regurgitation

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12

Peritoneopericaridial diaphragmatic hernia

Displacement of the intestine into the pericardium.

13

Hydropericardium

Transudate or exudate (+ fibrin - associated with mulberry heart disease)

Associated with generalised oedema and therefore cardiac tamponade and compression

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14

Haemorrhagic pericardial effusion

Small deposits of blood

GSD

15

Haemopericardium

Large amounts of blood within the pericardium.

Causes:

Atrial rupture due to haemangiosarc

Aortic rupture in horses

Iatrogenic

16

Pneumopericardium

Due to pulmonary rupture/ oesophageal rupture

17

Chylopericardium

Exudate formed due to rupture of the thoracic duct

18

Describe this value.

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Epicardial fat has become yellow and gelatinous. Due to fat metabolism (starvation).

Histologically appears oedematous and atrophic

19

Describe this lesion

What are the potential outcomes of the condition

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Subacute diffuse severe fibrinous pericarditis

(traumatic, haematogenous, local spread of infection)

Histo - fibrin layer with n# over pericardium

Outcomes - death through septicaemia or chronicity (proliferating fibrosis) with compensatory hypertrophy &heart failure

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20

Cause of fibrinous pericarditis in:

  1. Cat
  2. Cattle
  3. Pig
  4. Horse
  5. Bird

 

  1. FIP
  2. Pasturella, C. chauvoei, Chlamidophila, collisepticaemia
  3. Haemophilus parasuis, streps, pasturella, Salmonella, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  4. Streps
  5. Chlamydia psittaci

 

21

Polyserositis

Pig?

Inflammation of several serous membranes - eg pleural, pericardium, peritoneum

Glasser's disease - Haemophilus parasuis

22

Pericardial gout

Causes..

 

Accumulation of uric acids - found in reptiles/ birds

Causes:

  1. Enzyme deficiency
  2. Dietary
  3. Increased catabolism - disease/ tumours
  4. Renal disease
  5. Dehydration

Grossly see white urate crystals on the pericardial surface

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23

Endocardial mineralisation

Excess vitamin D intake or calcinogenic plant intoxication, Hyperparathroidism, renal failure, Johne's

Basically due to hypercalcaemia

24

Endocardial fibrosis

Chronic dilation, healing ulcerative endocarditis, jet lesions.

Appears as firm white plaques in endocardium and intima of large vessels

25

Myxomatous degeneration

Degenerative disease which accumulates mucin

26

Valvular endocardiosis

Degeneration of valvular collagen - degenerative change in older dogs

27

Left ventricular endocardial fibroelastosis

Depositation of fibroelastic tissue on endocardium (due to deposition and poor lymph drainage in the myocardium)

Can result in decreased CO, CHF and left-bundle block

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28

What bacterial species are associated with endocarditis?

Ecoli/ streps in dogs

A. pyogenes in cattle

Streps in pigs

29

Describe this lesion

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Multifocal to coelescing rough, irregular nodules. Endocardium remaining is reddened.

Acute mf-c severe fibrinous endocarditis

Valvular injury leads to bacterial adhesion and proliferation.

Chronically fibrosis occurs

30

Sequelae to valvular endocarditis

Valvular dysfunction - regurgitation, systemic/ pulmonic hypertension 

Atrial dilation and thromboembolism creation

Bacteriaemia

31

Aneurysm

Localised dilation of a thinning and weakened portion of a vessel.

Usually affects arteries

  • Copper deficiency in pigs
  • Spirocerca lupi
  • Disecting in birds

 

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32

What can lead to vessel rupture in animals?

Aneurysm

Traumatic - horse falls over, cow during parturition

Mycosis - internal carotid

 

33

Arterial hypertrophy

Sustained high pressure or volume within the artery - compensatory hypertrophy of smooth muscle

  • Parasitic - toxocara, heartworm, lung worm
  • Brisket disease - sustained vasoconstriction in response to generalised hypoxia
  • Cardiovascular shunts

34

Medial calcification

Causes?

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Endocardial mineralisation and fibrosis

Causes:

  • Vit D toxicosis
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Johne's
  • Plant toxicosis

Basophilic material within the tunica media of vessels

(Intima may be a normal finding)

35

Fibrinoid necrosis - endothelial damage and inflammation spills into surrounding tissue - fibrin deposits within interstitial tissue

Caused by selenium/ vit E deficiency in pigs/ oedema disease, uraemia

36

Thrombosis

Intravascular coagulation

There are three factors involved:

  • Endothelial injury - eg parasitic
  • Hypercoagulability - congenital, dehydrated
  • Abnormal blood flow - stasis, turbulence, emboli

 

37

Describe this lesion

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A solid mass within the aortic bifurcation of this cat (aka a saddle thrombus). Blocks blood flow to and from the caudal tissues

38

Thrombosis due to Dirofilaria immitis would most likely end up where?

Pulmonary arteries/ right ventricle

39

Thrombosis due to Strongyloids will most likely be found where?

Mesenteric artery of the gut

40

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Concurrent clotting and coagulation within the blood.

Extensive clotting depletes resources leading to widespread haemorrhage. Also activation of the coagulation scale.

41

Embolism

What are the four different types of emboli?

Occlusion of arteries by foreign material

  1. Septic - vegetative endocarditis
  2. Parasitic - fragments of dead parasites (due to anthelmintic treatment)
  3. Fat - bone fracture
  4. Fibrocartilagenous - spinal arteries due to fragmented discs
  5. Thromboembolism - pulmonary arteries (imha, ple)

42

Causes of arteritis

Haematogenous spread of infection

Local spread of infection

Immune mediated (t3 hypersensitivity)

Parasitic

43

Name one cause of vasculitis from each of these categories.

  1. Viral
  2. Bacteria
  3. Fungi
  4. Parasite
  5. Immune-mediated

 

  1. EVA, BVDV, BTV
  2. Salmonella, erysipelas
  3. Aspergillus
  4. Strogyloides
  5. SLE

 

44

Phlebitis

Causes

Vein inflammation

  • Systemic infection
  • Local infection
  • IV injection

45

Omphalophlebitis

Navel ill 

Inflammation of the umbilical vein in a neonate due to infection of the site post-partum

46

How can hepatic abscessation lead to thrombosis in the lung?

Local spread of infection from the hepatic vein to the vena cava, caval thrombosis travels to the heart and then the pulmonary system

47

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Haemangiopericytoma

Characterised by whorls of fusiform cells surrounding vessels

48

How can mitral valve disease lead to atrial rupture?

Valvular incompetence leads to voume overload of the atrium during systole

This leads to thinning of the atrial walls and eventually rupture of the structure

49

Eccentric ventricular hypertrophy

Due to volume overload the ventricle dilates with an increase in wall thickness

Caused eg by valvular insufficiency/ septal defect

50

Concentric hypertrophy

Increase wall thickness and decreased chamber size caused by pressure overload.

Caused by stenosis or systemic/ pulmonary hypertension

51

Ventricular dilation without hypertrophy is due to...

Inability of the muscle to undergo hypertrophy - disease, nutrition

Stretching of cells allows increased contractile force and stroke volume

52

Describe this lesion

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Severe concentric hypertrophy of the ventricles with subsequent dilation of the left atria

Histologically can see degenerate myocytes, interweaving fibres and fibrosis

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53

Describe this lesion

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Dilated ventricle, endocardium is diffusely white, increased heart weight

Histologically there may be NO changes, or similar to that of hypertrophic

Clinical signs would include effusions, dyspnoea (compressing airway), subcut oedema

54

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Walls are rigid - reduced filling

55

This genetic condition leads to fibrosis of cardio-myocytes

X-linked muscular dystrophy

Muscular atrophy, interstitial fat deposits and fibrosis

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56

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Myocardial necrosis

Pale yellow areas within the myocardium, dry, gritty (mineralisation)

57

Describe the progression of histological features of myocardial necrosis.

  1. Dilated, hypereosinophilic (necrotic) myocytes
  2. Infiltrated by inflammatory cells (n# and macrophages) - acute
  3. Infiltrated by fibroblasts - collagen and vascularisation

 

58

Describe this lesion

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Mottled colour of myocardium 

Areas of haemorrhage

Fibrinoid necrosis

Acute diffuse severe haemorrhagic and necrotisin myocarditis

Caused by vitaminE/ selenium deficit - mulberry heart disease (high fat diets)

59

Myocardial degeneration in equine

petechial haemorrhage pericoronal

Monensin poisoning

60

Lymphocytic myocarditis

Parvovirus (likes rapidly dividing cells) cardiacmyocytes in puppies

61

Purulent myocarditis

Veg endocarditis

Local bacterial spread

62

Black leg

Leads to myocarditis - Clostridium chauvei

63

Chemodectoma

At aortic base - tumour of the chemoreceptor cells

64