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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (64)
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1

Ectopia cordia

Heart develops outside the body cavity, due to incomplete body compartments

2

Amorphus globosus

Acardiac monster attached to the placenta. Spherical, covered in hair

3

Patent ductus arteriosus

Foetal remnant which connects the aorta and pulmonary artery. 

Blood shunts from aorta to pulmonary artery therefore leading to pulmonary hypertension.

Usually degenerates to the Ligamentum arteriosum

4

Sequelae to PDA

Right ventricular hypertension due to pulmonary hypertension

5

Patent foramen ovale

Hole which allows blood from the right atrium to by-pass the lungs during gestation

6

True septal defect

A hole (fault) in the septum between heart chambers.

Can be interatrial or interventricular.

With ventricular shunts are from left to right and lead to equal pressures in the chambers:

  • Volume overload and eccentric hypertrophy in the right atrium
  • Pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy in the left atrium

 

7

Pulmonary stenosis

Valvular lesions which are associated with muscle/fibrous tissue deposition:

  • Subvalvular - beneath the valve
  • Valvular - valve itself

Leads to pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Also jet lesions in the pulmonary artery.

8

Subaortic stenosis

Below the aortic valve a zone of circumferencial fibrosis.

Made up of proliferating mesenchyme, mucin and metaplastic cartilage.

Leads to pressure overload and concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Also myocardial necrosis and fibrosis may be observed.

9

Tetralogy of fallot

  1. Ventricular septal defect
  2. Pulmonic stenosis
  3. Dextroposition of the aorta - aorta straddles right and left ventricles
  4. Secondary hypertrophy of the rght ventricle

Baby blue syndrome - cyanosis

10

Valvular haematoma

Haemocyst/ lymphocyst - generally regress

11

Persistent right aortic arch

Ligamentum arteriosum forms a ring around the oesophagus and trachea.

Leads to cranial megaoesophagus - regurgitation

12

Peritoneopericaridial diaphragmatic hernia

Displacement of the intestine into the pericardium.

13

Hydropericardium

Transudate or exudate (+ fibrin - associated with mulberry heart disease)

Associated with generalised oedema and therefore cardiac tamponade and compression

14

Haemorrhagic pericardial effusion

Small deposits of blood

GSD

15

Haemopericardium

Large amounts of blood within the pericardium.

Causes:

Atrial rupture due to haemangiosarc

Aortic rupture in horses

Iatrogenic

16

Pneumopericardium

Due to pulmonary rupture/ oesophageal rupture

17

Chylopericardium

Exudate formed due to rupture of the thoracic duct

18

Describe this value.

Epicardial fat has become yellow and gelatinous. Due to fat metabolism (starvation).

Histologically appears oedematous and atrophic

19

Describe this lesion

What are the potential outcomes of the condition

Subacute diffuse severe fibrinous pericarditis

(traumatic, haematogenous, local spread of infection)

Histo - fibrin layer with n# over pericardium

Outcomes - death through septicaemia or chronicity (proliferating fibrosis) with compensatory hypertrophy &heart failure

20

Cause of fibrinous pericarditis in:

  1. Cat
  2. Cattle
  3. Pig
  4. Horse
  5. Bird

 

  1. FIP
  2. Pasturella, C. chauvoei, Chlamidophila, collisepticaemia
  3. Haemophilus parasuis, streps, pasturella, Salmonella, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  4. Streps
  5. Chlamydia psittaci

 

21

Polyserositis

Pig?

Inflammation of several serous membranes - eg pleural, pericardium, peritoneum

Glasser's disease - Haemophilus parasuis

22

Pericardial gout

Causes..

 

Accumulation of uric acids - found in reptiles/ birds

Causes:

  1. Enzyme deficiency
  2. Dietary
  3. Increased catabolism - disease/ tumours
  4. Renal disease
  5. Dehydration

Grossly see white urate crystals on the pericardial surface

23

Endocardial mineralisation

Excess vitamin D intake or calcinogenic plant intoxication, Hyperparathroidism, renal failure, Johne's

Basically due to hypercalcaemia

24

Endocardial fibrosis

Chronic dilation, healing ulcerative endocarditis, jet lesions.

Appears as firm white plaques in endocardium and intima of large vessels

25

Myxomatous degeneration

Degenerative disease which accumulates mucin

26

Valvular endocardiosis

Degeneration of valvular collagen - degenerative change in older dogs

27

Left ventricular endocardial fibroelastosis

Depositation of fibroelastic tissue on endocardium (due to deposition and poor lymph drainage in the myocardium)

Can result in decreased CO, CHF and left-bundle block

28

What bacterial species are associated with endocarditis?

Ecoli/ streps in dogs

A. pyogenes in cattle

Streps in pigs

29

Describe this lesion

Multifocal to coelescing rough, irregular nodules. Endocardium remaining is reddened.

Acute mf-c severe fibrinous endocarditis

Valvular injury leads to bacterial adhesion and proliferation.

Chronically fibrosis occurs

30

Sequelae to valvular endocarditis

Valvular dysfunction - regurgitation, systemic/ pulmonic hypertension 

Atrial dilation and thromboembolism creation

Bacteriaemia