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Flashcards in Haematopoietic system Deck (72)
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 Primary Haematopoietic neoplasia:

Solid vs circulating tumours

solid = discrete mass - lymphoma

Circulating = leukaemia


Define lymphoid leukaemia

Neoplastic lymphocytes in bone marrow/ blood.

ie circulating


Define lymphoma

Neoplastic lymphocytes in tissues/ organs

ie Solid


Name and describe the four classifications of lymphoma.

  1. Anatomical - ie location
  2. Cellular morphology - cell size, nuclear features, mitotic rate
  3. Immuno-phenotype - B/T cell or Null
  4. Biologic behaviour - Low - high grade


True or false.

Low grade tumours are less responsive to chemotherapy than high grade.



Low grade (indolent) tumours are slower growing and therefore less responsive to therapies 


Which immuno-phenotype shows a better response to therapy?

B cell



Generalised, found in multiple lymphocytes.


What are the common featuers of primary bone neoplasia?

  1. Hypercellular marrow: uncontrolled proliferation of the neoplastic haematopoietic cells
  2. Anemia: non-regenerative anemia - ineffective erythropoiesis. Bone marrow is occupied by neoplastic haematopoietic cells = competition for nutrients &/or space (myelophthisis). Neoplastic cells secrete inhib factors
  3. Thrombocytopenia +/- Neutropenia: not always present
  4. Leukemic cells in peripheral blood: immature stages of haematopoietic cells in peripheral blood commonly seen in haematopoietic neoplasia.


What is the difference between lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative diseases?

Neoplastic transformation of lymphoid cell lines = lymphoproliferative.

Neoplastic proliferation of one or more bone marrow cell lines = myeloproliferative (granulocytes, erythrocytes, monocytes etc)


Describe clinical signs associated with lymphoma.

  1. Non-specific - wt loss and anorexia
  2. Lymphandenopathy - painless swelling
  3. Depending on anatomical location
    1. Exophthalmos - retrobulbar LN
    2. Dyspnoea, tracheal/ oesophageal obstruction - thymic
    3. Diarrhea, obstruction, melena - Alimentary 


Describe the gross appearance of a lymphoma lesion.

  • Lymphnodes - enlarged
    • Soft to firm, bulge on cut surface
    • Pale tan - white
    • Homogenous appearance
    • Focal necrosis/ haemorrhage
    • Fibrosed to surrounding tissue
  • Organomegaly
  • Multiple tan-white-pink organ nodules


Name the most common canine hematopoietic neoplasia.

Canine lymphoma


What percentage of canine lymphoma show multicentric lymphoma?



How does canine lymphoma result in hypercalcemia?

The tumours produce pth-like factor which does not respond to normal negative feedback.

(also occurs in anal-sac carcinomas)


Name the most common malignant neoplasm of cats.

Feline Lymphoma


Which virus is feline lymphoma associated with?


  • 10-20% of cats with lymphoma are FeLV positive
  • Occurs in young cats 
  • Mediastinal and multicentric forms possible 


Which form of feline lymphoma are most common?

Order these as most common onwards..

Misc, multicentric, alimentary, thymic

Alimentary > multicentric > thymic > misc


Which form of lymphoma is characteristic of Enzootic Bovine Lymphoma?

Which virus is associated with the disease?

Multicentric lymphoma of b cells.

Bovine Leukosis virus, retrovirus

Remember: 30% don't initially present with lymphoma - persistent lymphocytosis

3% of cattle develop lymphoma


How is BLV transmitted?

Through transmission of viral infected lymphocytes:

  1. Direct contact
  2. Natural breeding
  3. Contaminated needles
  4. Dehorning/ ear-tagging equipment
  5. Arthropods - horizontal spread


Which sites are commonly affected by Enzootic Bovine lymphoma?


  1. LNs
  2. Right atrium
  3. Abomasum
  4. Spinal canal
  5. Uterus 
  6. Kidney


How is sporadic bovine lymphoma characterised between these different age groups:

  • Calves <6m?
  • Juvenile - yearlings?
  • 2-3 years?

  1. Multicentric lymphoma, symmetrical lymphadenophathy/ leukemia, bone marrow/ organinfiltration
  2. Mediastinal lymphoma - large cranial thoracic/ lower cervical masses - resp distress and wt loss
  3. Plaque-like to nodular raised skin lesions, lesions may come and go, can survive up to 18 months, eventually leads to systemic involvement 


Which groups are most at risk of developing porcine lymphoma?

Where are lesions commonly found?

  1. Females
  2. Large white - autosomal recessive 
  3. <1 yo
  • Multicentric - visceral LN, spleen, liver, stomach, intestine, kidney, bone marrow
  • Mediastinal 


Name and describe three types of plasma cell tumours (benign and malignant)

  1. Plasmacytoma
    1. Cutaneous - common in dogs, surgery is curative - benign
    2. Extramedullary - don't arise from bone marrow, may affect GI tract, may mets to LNs
  2. Plasma cell myeloma - aggressive and malignant tumours arising from bone marrow 


Describe this lesion.

The pinna of this dog has a 1cmx1cm nodular red mass which protrudes from the surface of the ear. The mass is firm to touch and shows well demarcation.

Pinnal cutaneous plasmacytoma


Describe the histological finding associated with plasmacytomas.


  1. Sheets of rounds cells 
  2. Show anisocytosis - uneven size
  3. Show anisokaryosis - variation in nuclear size
  4. Clock face pattern of dense chromatin seen
  5. Halo of Golgi
  6. Multinucleated giant cells may be seen


Describe the gross findings associated with multiple myeloma.

  • Affected bone exhibit multiple dark-red soft / gelatinous tissue nodules filling areas of bone resorption / lysis.
  • 2/3 of dog cases show osteolytic lesions
  •  Lesions can be found in any haematopoietically active bone, but are most common in the vertebrae.


True or false.

Histological signs of multiple myeloma are similar to that of plasmacytoma.

Describe the histo changes.


Masses composed of sheets of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow


What clinical signs are commonly associated with plasma cell myeloma?

  • Pain in affected bones - lameness
  • Spinal cord compression leads to paraplegia - pathological ventrebral fracture
  • Hypercalcemia - osteolysis
  • Bence-jones proteinuria
  • Monoclonal gammopathy
  • Hyperviscosity syndrome - increased blood viscosity


Bence-Jones protein

Monoclonal globulin protein/ immunoglobulin light chain found in urine


Decribe this serum electrophoresis.

Monoclonal gammopathy