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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (94):
1

Cheiloschisis

Cleft lip

2

Palatochisis

Cleft palate

3

Cause of glossal atrophy in the horse..

Lingual muscle atrophy due to neuropathy of nerves running through the guttural pouch - mycosis

4

Pallor (mm)

Anaemia

Heart failure

5

Cyanosis (mm)

Blue or purple discolouration of the mucus membrane - due to low tissue oxygenation

6

Petechial/ ecchymotic haemorrhage (mm)

Clotting defect

Septicaemia

Intoxication

7

Stomatitis

Inflammation or oral mucous membranes

8

Gingivitis

Inflammation

  • Poor oral hygiene - plaque build up
  • SBI
  • Gingival trauma
  • Immunodeficiency - FIV

 

9

Describe this lesion

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Focal area (poorly demarcated) of redenning of the gingival.

Affecting 20% of tissue, areas are soft and mildly oedema.

Chronic focal mild haemorrhagic gingivitis

Cause: poor dental hygiene

10

Describe this lesion

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Acute multifocal severe necrotising fibrinous stomatitis

Fusobacterium necrophorum

11

Describe this lesion

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Yellow foci spread throughout the tongue muscle.

Chronic multifocal severe pyogranulomatous glossitis

Actinobacillus lignieresi

12

Oribivirus causing cyanosis in livestock

Bluetongue - spread by culicoides

13

What is the pathogenesis of Bluetongue virus?

Causes endothelial damage and vasculitis - microthrombi formation and haemorrhage - leads to ischemic necrosis

14

A picornavirus causing oral vesicles in sheep and cattle.

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Foot and mouth disease virus

15

Transmission of FMDV

Aerosol

Oropharyngeal

16

Pathogenesis of FMDV

Ballooning degeneration of glossal mucosal - cell detachment - oedema

Acute focal moderate fibrinous glottitis

17

Picornavirus causing vesicle formation in pigs.

Swine vesicular disease

18

Describe this lesion

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Multifocal to coelescing red ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa of the cow.

Well demarcated - irregularly shaped 2x2mm

Cause: Cytopathic mucosal disease associated with BVDV1 - pestivirus

19

Where can mucosal disease appear in the cow?

Oral mucosa

Glossal mucosa

Rumen

Oesophagus

20

Malignant catarrhal fever is what type of virus

Ovine herpes virus 1

21

Differentials for infectious causes of erosive stomatitis/ glossitis.

  1. FMD
  2. Mucosal disease BVD
  3. MCF Ovine herpes virus 1
  4. Bluetongue
  5. Fusobacterium necrophorum - calf diphtheria
  6. Actinobacillus lignieresi - wooden tongue

 

22

Describe this lesion.

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Multifocal to coelescing irregular well demarcated flat ulcers on the palatal surface. The underlying tissue is severely reddened. Lesions are 5x1 cm at the largest.

Also seen is conjunctivitis and keratitis/ muzzle ulceration

Acute multifocal m/s ulcerative stomatitis 

23

What feline viruses cause ulcerative/ erosive stomatitis?

Feline calicivirus 

Feline herpesvirus

24

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Ulcerative glossitis associated with FCV/ FHV

Distinguishable since FHV infection shows syncitial cells and possibly inclusion bodies on histological examination

25

Fungal cause of stomatitis, oral ulceration and glossitis in suckling animals and immunocompromised adults.

Candida albicans

26

Parasitic causes of stomatitis, oral ulceration and glossitis

Cystercercus of taenia species:

  • Cellulosae - T. solium in lingual muscles
  • Bovis - T. saginata

Trichinella spiralis

27

Potential causes of tonsilitis

Sytemic pathogens: CAV, Parvo, swine HV

Colonising bacteria: Streptococci, some coliforms - rare primary disease

28

What is the difference between a papilloma and epulide?

Epulides are derived from gingival connective tissue or periodontal ligaments

Papillomas are derived from oral epithelium

29

Describe the lesion

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Malignant melanoma of the pigmented mucosa

Highly invasive - to blood and lymphnodes

30

Ameloblastoma

Amelocyte tumour - dental epithelium

31

Odontoma

Harmatoma (abnormal) benign growth of dental tissue

32

Sialoadenitis

Salivary gland inflammation

33

Sialoliths

Salivary calculi

34

Ranula

Cyst of the sublingual duct

35

Persistent 4th right aortic arch can lead to....

Oesophageal stricture and dilation of the cranial oesophagus

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36

What sequelae can occur due to congenital oesophageal stricture?

Poor wt gain

Regurgitation

Aspiration pneumonia

37

Choke

Caused by oesophageal obstructure - can lead to ulceration and necrosis of the mucosa

38

Sequelae of oesophageal obstruction?

  • Bloat - prevented eructation
  • Dysphagia
  • Diverticulum formation
  • Oesophageal rupture
  • Regurgitation - aspiration pneumonia

 

39

Mega-oesophagus

Neuromuscular disorder/ distal obstruction of the oesophagus

Leads to atony and flaccid oeophagus (dilated with food)

Can be congenital or acquired secondary to neuromuscular disorders (distemper, myasthenia gravis)

40

Myaesthenia gravis

Autoimmune disease against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - generalised muscle weakness

41

Autonomic polyganglionopathy resulting in abnormal sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

Grass sickness - due to Clostridium toxin

42

Oesophagitis can occur by which means?

Infectious induction - MD, MCF, IBR

Chemical induction - reflux (gastic acid, pepsin)

43

Spirocerca lupi

Oesophageal parasite causing granulomatous oesophagitis and development of fibrosarcoma

44

Which papilloma virus causes tumours in the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and rumen?

Type 4

45

Which papilloma virus causes tumours of the skin?

Types 3 and 6

46

What can cause ruminal parakeratosis?

Adaptations to change in diet

47

Ruminal tympany

Bloat - accumulation of excess quantities of gas within the rumen

  1. Frothy - gas is dispersed in small bubbles - cannot escape with eructation - due to legumes
  2. Free gas - due to physical obstruction of oesophagus/ pharynx

 

48

How does ruminal acidosis result in rumenitis?

  • Increased VFA production 
  • Successive drop in ruminal pH
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Chemical ulceration and inflammation of the rumen

(can lead to death if pH<4.5)

49

Describe this lesion

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The pericardium and pericardial space is diffusely filled with a pale tan friable substance which is adhered but removable from the heart surface. The epicardium is thickened. There also appears to be multifocal areas of haemorrhage.

Subacute diffuse severe fibrinonecrotising suppurative pericarditis secondary to traumatic reticulitis (Hardware disease)

50

What condition is commonly associated with excessive eating or aerophagia in dogs?

Gastric dilatation and volvulus

51

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Displacement of the pylorus ventrally which then wraps around the dilated stomach 

Stomach rotates on the long axis and around 360o when viewed from the caudal aspect

Leads to gastric torsion and ischemia and twisting of the spleen 

52

Left displaced abomasum

Often associated with old dairy cows around the time of parturition (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, metritis, RFM)

Can lead to haemorrhagic infarction/ abomasal volvulus

53

Parasites of the stomach

Gastrophilus - induces erosions & gastritis

Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Telodorsagia, Trichostrongylus axei

 

54

Pica

Allotriophagia - abnormal diet

  • Encephalitis - neuro
  • Starvation
  • Boredom

 

55

Zootrichobezoars

Impacted hairballs

56

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Acute catarrhal gastritis - increase mucus production

57

What can cause acute haemorrhagic gastritis?

NSAIDs - reduced PG (increased gastric acid)

Poison

Swine erysipelas

Braxy - Clostridium septicum enterotoxin

58

Describe this lesion

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Acute diffuse severe haemorhagic necrotising gastritis

Clostridium septicum - Braxy

59

What pathogens can cause haemorrhagic gastritis?

Anthrax

CSF

Leptospirosis

60

Uraemic gastritis.

Chronic renal failure sequelae

Due to excess ammonia excretion in gastric juices and saliva

61

Fibrinonecrotising gastritis

Caused by mycotic infection 

Areas of hyperaemia and fibrin depositation on the mucosal surface

62

Which area of the equine stomach is most susceptible to ulceration?

Non-glandular 

Squamous epithelium

63

Which area of the cows stomach is prone to gastric ulceration?

Pylorus

Associated with environmental stressors and diet

64

How do mast cell tumours increase likelihood of gastric ulceration?

Lead to increased histamine production

65

Sequelae to gastric ulcers

Haemorrhage - anaemia 

Perforation - peritonitis

66

Why does gastric rupture commonly lead to gastric rupture?

When does it occur in horses?

Leads to peritonitis, septic shock (due to intoxication with gastric contents)

Occurs as a sequelae to obstructive colic or gastric dilation (xs fermentable carbs, water or lush pasture)

67

Leomyoma/sarcoma

Smooth muscle cell neoplasm - arises from the tunica muscularis in the stomach

68

Intestinal atresia

Congenital abscence of an intestinal opening/ passage.

(muscular and connective tissue layers still present)

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69

Cause of megacolon

Idiopathic - recurrent and progressive in old cats

Neuronal aplasia

70

Herniation of intestine

Where and when can this happen?

Displacement of an organ through a pre-existing hole

  • Diaphragmatic - traumatic
  • Epiploic entrapment - horse
  • Inguinal - rabbit 

 

71

Intussuception

Telescoping of one segment into another.

Usually as a result of enteritis due to increased bowel movement - Parvo, distemper, parasitic (tapeworm in horses)

72

Volvulus

Twist at the mesenteric root of intestine

73

Common cause of intestinal volvulus in the horse.

Sequelae

Pedunculated lipoma

Leads to vascular occlusion, ischemia and infarction

74

What kind of foreign body can cause disolation of large sections of the intestine?

Linear - such as thread

75

Which of the sympathetic ganglion is implicated in the development of equine grass sickness?

Coeliac

Chromatolysis

Shrunken and eosinophilic neurones

76

Mechanisms of diarrhoea development

Maldigestion - villous atrophy, lack of enzymes - rotavirus, coronavirus, EPEC

Malabsorption - villous atrophy

Hypersecretion - enterotoxins - ETEC, Yersinia enterocolitica

Increased motility

77

Pathogens causing catarrhal enteritis

Loss of villous tip and villous atrophy

  • Coronavirus
  • Rotavirus
  • Parvovirus
  • Feline parvovirus (FPV)

78

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Sunken peyers patches found in catarrhal enteritis associated with parvovirus in a dog

79

Parvovirus has an affinity for which area of the villous?

Crypt! 

Likes rapidly dividing cells

80

Oedema disease

Ecoli in pigs

Causes oedema of subcutis, stomach wall and mesenteric lymphnodes

81

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Fibrino-necrotising enteritis - deep mucosal damage

Acute CSF

82

What type of enteritis can be caused by Salmonellosis infection?

Fibrino-necrotising in chronic infections in young animals

83

Porcine proliferative enteropathy

Lawsonia intracellularis

84

Describe this lesion

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Diffuse mucosal hyperplasia

Areas of haemorrhage

Lawsonia intracellularis - proliferative enteropathy

85

Intestinal adenomatosis

Lawsonia induced hyperplasia of intestinal glands

86

Describe the four forms of Porcine proliferative enteropathy.

  1. Intestinal adenomatosis - similar appearance to Johnes
  2. Proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy
  3. Necrotic enteritis - high mortality
  4. Terminal ileitis - chronicity

 

87

Notifiable zoonosis causing haemorrhagic enteritis in the acute phase.

Bacillus anthracis - Anthrax

88

Describe this lesion

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Hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium

Diffusely reddened - granulomatous inflammation

Chronic diffuse severe granulomatous enteritis

Johne's disease

89

Inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by what type of inflammation

Lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic - caused by hypersensitivity to infectious disease or dietary substance

90

Malabsorption syndrome can occur secondary to what pathology?

Pancreatic enzyme insufficiency

Acute/ chronic enteritis (villous atrophy)

91

Describe verminous arteritis.

Thrombosis of the cranial mesenteric arteries due to parasitic invastion - Strongylus vulgaris in the horse

92

Describe this lesion

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Subserosal haemorrhage caused by parasitic migration

93

Describe this lesion

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Multifocal to coelescing, 4x4mm raised firm nodules on the intestinal surface.

Chronic multifocal to coelescing, severe catarrhal enteritis

Coccidiosis - Eimeria

94

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Multifocal small granulomatous lesions caused by en mass emergence of L3s from the intestinal wall