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Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (62):
1

What is the cause of hermaphroditism?

Chromosomal abnormalities

  • XO/XXX - Ovarian dysgenesis/ hypoplasia/ immature
  • XXY - Testicular hypoplasia, torty cats

 

2

Mullerian duct

Embryonic uterine horn - the paramesonephric duct in the male

3

Wolffian duct

Ductus deferens - the mesonephric duct in the female

4

What is a true hermaphrodite

Possesses both sets of gonads - may be bilateral, unilateral (with an ovotestis structure) or lateral (one ovary, one testis

5

What is a pseudohermaphrodite?

Gonads of one sex but the external features of the other

6

Free martinism

Grossly, cause

Due to humoral alteration of the female within a heterosexual twin set sharing placental blood

Leads to hypoplasia of the ovaries and hypoplastic vulva in the female twin

7

When does intrafollicular haemorrhage occur?

When might traumatic haemorrhage occur in the ovary?

Ovulation

Traumatic corpus luteum rupture (or cysts)

8

What type of hermaphrodite is shown here?

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Unilateral true

9

What type of hermaphrodite is shown here?

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Pseudo

10

What is shown here?

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Ovarian hypoplasia due to free martinism

11

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Intrafollicular haemorrhage secondary to traumatic enucleation of an ovarian cyst

12

Describe this lesion

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Focal enlargement of the ovary with surrounding haemorrhage. The ovary is oozing a creamy white thick exudate (suppuration). Surrounding tissues seem enlarged.

Acute focal moderate to severe suppurative ovaritis

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

13

Why does chronic ovarian inflammation result in reduced fertility?

Leads to adhesions in the uterine tube - follicle cannot pass through

14

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Paraovarian cysts - sit adjacent to the oviduct

Remnant of the Wolffian ducts

15

What are the three different types of ovarian cysts which can been found?

  1. Follicular cysts - undeveloped follicles - may secrete oestrogen (persistent bulling)
  2. Luteal cysts - lutinised anovulatory follicles - produce progesterone (anoestrus)
  3. Cystic CL - premature closure of the ovulation site - not clinically significant

16

Describe this lesion

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The ovarian architecture is disrupted by multifocal distinct cystic structures (2x2cm) which are filled with transluscent red-yellow fluid.

Chronic multifocal moderate to severe polycystic ovarian disease

Follicular cysts - likely to lead to persistent bulling in the cow

17

Cystadenoma

Cystic adenoma

18

Describe this lesion

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Highly invasive, disrupts the entire architecture of the ovary. Multifocally haemorrhagic. Non-encapsulated. Invasive

Ovarian (papillary) cystadenocarcinoma

19

What types of hormone may be secreted by granulosa cell tumours?

Progesterone

Oestrodiol

Testosterone

20

Describe this lesion found in a mare with persistent oestrus behaviour

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The ovary is diffusely enlarged and on the cut surface it can be seen that the normal architecture is diffusely disrupted by infiltrative cystic structures containing clear exudative type fluid. Cysts range from 0.5-1cm in diameter. An area of focal haemorrhage is seen on the ovarian surface.

Ovarian granulosa cell tumour

21

Describe this ovarian tumour.

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Well differentiated cells, cystic structures filled with amorphous haemorrhagic exudate.

Little pleomorphism and mitosis seen

22

Describe this lesion

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Ovarian architecture is diffusely disrupted by a large (4x4cm) oval mass which is un-encapsulated and well-demarcated. Space occupying.

Histologically cells appear round with large nuclei and lots of mitoses are seen.

Ovarian dysgerminoma

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23

What is a teratoma?

A tumour which arises from multipotential cells that produce tissues from 2 or 3 embryological layers (ectoderm, mesoderm + endoderm). 

24

What is this?

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Teratoma!

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25

Hydrosalpinx

Clear fluid within uterine tubes due to obstruction, inflammation or congenital defect

26

What is shown here?

What can cause it?

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Uterine torsion

Caused by foetal movement and relaxed bands

Leads to venous occlusion, infarction and necrosis

27

Describe this lesion

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Uterine prolapse secondary to hypocalcaemia/ dystocia - can lead to rupture (bleeds out via middle uterine artery)

28

Endometrial hyperplasia is caused by what?

Excess hormone stimulation:

  1. Oestrogen mediated - LA
    1. Prolonged oestrogen stimulation
    2. Other source of oestrogen - tumour
    3. Signs: myometrial/endometrial hyperplasia, distension and adenomatosis
  2. Progesterone mediated - SA/EQ
    1. CL fails to regress - bitch
    2. PGF2a not produced - horse
    3. Signs: diffuse cystic nodules

29

Describe this lesion

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Cystic endometrial hyperplasia

Progesterone induced in the bitch

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30

How can the non-gravid uterus become infected?

Ascending infection - AI, post-partum, venereal

Haematogenous

31

Endometritis

Within the uterus (epithelium)

32

Metritis

Myometrium involved

33

Panmetritis

Throughout the uterus

34

Perimetritis

Next to the uterus

35

Which pathogens may be expected to be isolated in a post-partum heifer due to ascending infection?

E. coli

Archanobacterium pyogenes

Streps - beta haemolytic

Kleibsiella

F. necrophorum

ENVIRONMENTAL

36

Name three pathogens which may be expected to cause inflammation of the non-gravid uterus

  • BHV1 - IBR
  • Campy fetus venerealis
  • Brucella abortus
  • M. tuberculosis
  • Tritrichimonas
  • Mycotic
  • Taylorella equigenitalis - CEM

 

37

What sequelae may be expected with infection of the non-gravid uterus?

  • Septicaemia/ toxaemia
  • Pyaemia
  • Metritis
  • Pyometra
  • Ascending infection - salpingitis, renal involvement

38

Describe this lesion

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The uterus of this bitch shows diffuse enlargement. The lumen is filled with a brown fluid. Areas of multifocal haemorrhage of the surrounding tissues. The endometrium also shows multifocal to coelescing nodular enlargement. Nodules are soft to touch - cystic? 

Acute diffuse severe suppurative endometritis and pyometra

Causes: in the bitch e.coli or streps/staphs

39

What pathogens may cause pyometra in the cow?

What pathogenisis leads to this type of lesion?

A. pyogenes, E.coli, streps etc

Pathogenesis - 

  • Failed PGF2a stimulation leads to a persistent CL
  • Continued P4 levels increase glandular secretion
  • Myometrial contraction decreases 
  • The cervix may close
  • Bacteria multiply!

 

40

What pathogens may cause pyometra in the mare?

Strep zooepidemicus

E.coli

Pseudomonas

Klebsiella

Pasteurella

41

Describe this lesion

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Focally extensive, the uterine surface is brown in colour, apears dry in texture. Foetus is dead also covered in thick brown suppurative material. Other side of uterus appears haemorrhagic and hyperplastic.

Chronic focal severe necrotising metritis

 

42

Describe this lesion

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Multifocal space occupying lesions of the uterine wall

Histologically appears as streams of myocytes

Uterine leiomyoma

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43

Describe this lesion

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Locally invasive, unencapsulated white masses protruding into the uterine lumen.

Histologically appears as aggregations of glandular tissue

Uterine adenocarcinoma

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44

Differentiate between:

  1. Early embryonic death
  2. Abortion
  3. Stillbirth

 

  1. Lethal chromosomal abnormality - resumes cycling
  2. Expulsion of the foetus before it could survive
  3. Expulsion of the foetus at an age it could survive

 

45

Describe this carcass.

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Dessicated (skin tightly adhered to skeletal structure), brown discolouration, leathery

Occurs in the abscence of interuterine infection (emphysema with)

46

Describe this carcass

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Maceration (softening of a carcass) - caused by campy tritrichimonas

Due to interuterine infection

47

Describe this lesion

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Empysematous calf - putrifactive, gas forming bacteria

Forms in the presence of interuterine infection

48

Hydrallantois/ hydramnion

Aka hydrops

Excess fluid within the amniotic/allantoic cavity

49

What can predispose the gravid uterus to infection?

By the haematogenous route!

Progesterone secretion

Chorionic epithelium secretions

Immun-priviledged site

50

Describe this lesion

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Intercotyledonary thickening, cotyledons appear reddened with the edges appearing friable and brown discolouration (thick) 

Foetus appears oedematous

Chronic diffuse severe necrotising placentitis

Brucella abortus - suis, ovis, canis

51

Describe this lesion

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Half of the placenta is browns discolouration, friable, soft. The other half shows cotyledonary haemorrhage.

Acute focally extensive severe necrotising placentitis

Campylobacter fetus venerealis

52

What signs are indicative of mycotic placentitis?

Fungal hyphae within the foetal stomach

Necrotising placentitis

Caused by Aspergillus

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53

What protozoa are associated with placentitis?

Neospora caninum 

Toxoplasma gondii

54

Describe this lesion

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Severe, acute diffuse necrotising placentisi (strawberry lesions) - small foci present on the cotyledons

Toxoplasma gondii

55

What would this foetal lesion be associated with?

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Cerebellar hypoplasia - BVD

Also:

  • Cerebellar hypoplasia
  • Retinal atrophy
  • Optic neuritis

 

56

Cause of sequential abortion in pigs.

Porcine parvovirus

57

You find fungal hyphae in the stomach of an aborted foetus.

What aetiology would you expect?

Aspergillus 

Causes necrotising placentitis - reaches the placenta via ascending infection or haematogenous route

58

You find scattered 1-3mm white foci on a placenta of an aborted calf.

What aetiology do you expect?

Toxoplasma gondii

59

Describe the possible routes of infection for mastitis pathogens.

Teat canal

Local invasiveness

Percutaneous

Haematogenous

60

What factors in milk provide resistence to mastitis infection?

Lactoferrin

Lysozyme

Lactoperoxidase

Immunoglobulin

Neutrophils

61

Name three environmental pathogens which cause mastitis in cattle.

  • Strep. dysgalactiae
  • Strep. uberis
  • E.coli

62

Pathogenesis of prostatic hyperplasia

Increased testosterone stimulation - acts as an autocrine hormone on stromal cells and paracrine on epithelial cells.

Binds to intranuclear receptors, leads to increased growth