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Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (62)
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1

What is the cause of hermaphroditism?

Chromosomal abnormalities

  • XO/XXX - Ovarian dysgenesis/ hypoplasia/ immature
  • XXY - Testicular hypoplasia, torty cats

 

2

Mullerian duct

Embryonic uterine horn - the paramesonephric duct in the male

3

Wolffian duct

Ductus deferens - the mesonephric duct in the female

4

What is a true hermaphrodite

Possesses both sets of gonads - may be bilateral, unilateral (with an ovotestis structure) or lateral (one ovary, one testis

5

What is a pseudohermaphrodite?

Gonads of one sex but the external features of the other

6

Free martinism

Grossly, cause

Due to humoral alteration of the female within a heterosexual twin set sharing placental blood

Leads to hypoplasia of the ovaries and hypoplastic vulva in the female twin

7

When does intrafollicular haemorrhage occur?

When might traumatic haemorrhage occur in the ovary?

Ovulation

Traumatic corpus luteum rupture (or cysts)

8

What type of hermaphrodite is shown here?

Unilateral true

9

What type of hermaphrodite is shown here?

Pseudo

10

What is shown here?

Ovarian hypoplasia due to free martinism

11

Intrafollicular haemorrhage secondary to traumatic enucleation of an ovarian cyst

12

Describe this lesion

Focal enlargement of the ovary with surrounding haemorrhage. The ovary is oozing a creamy white thick exudate (suppuration). Surrounding tissues seem enlarged.

Acute focal moderate to severe suppurative ovaritis

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

13

Why does chronic ovarian inflammation result in reduced fertility?

Leads to adhesions in the uterine tube - follicle cannot pass through

14

Paraovarian cysts - sit adjacent to the oviduct

Remnant of the Wolffian ducts

15

What are the three different types of ovarian cysts which can been found?

  1. Follicular cysts - undeveloped follicles - may secrete oestrogen (persistent bulling)
  2. Luteal cysts - lutinised anovulatory follicles - produce progesterone (anoestrus)
  3. Cystic CL - premature closure of the ovulation site - not clinically significant

16

Describe this lesion

The ovarian architecture is disrupted by multifocal distinct cystic structures (2x2cm) which are filled with transluscent red-yellow fluid.

Chronic multifocal moderate to severe polycystic ovarian disease

Follicular cysts - likely to lead to persistent bulling in the cow

17

Cystadenoma

Cystic adenoma

18

Describe this lesion

Highly invasive, disrupts the entire architecture of the ovary. Multifocally haemorrhagic. Non-encapsulated. Invasive

Ovarian (papillary) cystadenocarcinoma

19

What types of hormone may be secreted by granulosa cell tumours?

Progesterone

Oestrodiol

Testosterone

20

Describe this lesion found in a mare with persistent oestrus behaviour

The ovary is diffusely enlarged and on the cut surface it can be seen that the normal architecture is diffusely disrupted by infiltrative cystic structures containing clear exudative type fluid. Cysts range from 0.5-1cm in diameter. An area of focal haemorrhage is seen on the ovarian surface.

Ovarian granulosa cell tumour

21

Describe this ovarian tumour.

Well differentiated cells, cystic structures filled with amorphous haemorrhagic exudate.

Little pleomorphism and mitosis seen

22

Describe this lesion

Ovarian architecture is diffusely disrupted by a large (4x4cm) oval mass which is un-encapsulated and well-demarcated. Space occupying.

Histologically cells appear round with large nuclei and lots of mitoses are seen.

Ovarian dysgerminoma

23

What is a teratoma?

A tumour which arises from multipotential cells that produce tissues from 2 or 3 embryological layers (ectoderm, mesoderm + endoderm). 

24

What is this?

Teratoma!

25

Hydrosalpinx

Clear fluid within uterine tubes due to obstruction, inflammation or congenital defect

26

What is shown here?

What can cause it?

Uterine torsion

Caused by foetal movement and relaxed bands

Leads to venous occlusion, infarction and necrosis

27

Describe this lesion

Uterine prolapse secondary to hypocalcaemia/ dystocia - can lead to rupture (bleeds out via middle uterine artery)

28

Endometrial hyperplasia is caused by what?

Excess hormone stimulation:

  1. Oestrogen mediated - LA
    1. Prolonged oestrogen stimulation
    2. Other source of oestrogen - tumour
    3. Signs: myometrial/endometrial hyperplasia, distension and adenomatosis
  2. Progesterone mediated - SA/EQ
    1. CL fails to regress - bitch
    2. PGF2a not produced - horse
    3. Signs: diffuse cystic nodules

29

Describe this lesion

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia

Progesterone induced in the bitch

30

How can the non-gravid uterus become infected?

Ascending infection - AI, post-partum, venereal

Haematogenous