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Flashcards in Liver Deck (110)
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1

What congenital conditions may be found in the liver?

  1. Aplasia/ supernumerary lobes
  2. Intrahepatic cysts
  3. Portosystemic shunts

2

Describe this lesion

The entire liver parenchyma has been disrupted by disseminated fluid-filled, soft cystic structures. Areas of tissue which are not cystic show multifocal areas of haemorrhage or yellow discolouration.

Chronic disseminated severe polycystic hepatopathy

Genetic in persians

3

What is the difference between an intra and extrahepatic shunt?

Which structures do they arise from?

Intra - within the liver - Persistence of ductus venosus

Extra - within and outside of the liver - a direct connection between HPV and vena cava/ azygous veins

4

Intrahepatic shunt

Persistent ductus venosus

5

Extrahepatic shunt

6

Describe the appearance of the liver of an animal which has a porto-systemic shunt.

  • Microhepatia
  • Small hepatocytes
  • Small or absent portal veins in triads
  • More arterioles in triads

 

7

Describe this lesion

The normal anatomy of the thorax and abdomen of this cat has been severely disturbed, with the small intestine and other abdominal viscera being displaced cranially, presumably through the diaphragm.

Acute severe diffuse traumatic diaphragmatic herniation of the gastro-intestinal tract.

8

Outline the expected sequelae of hepatic torsion

Venous occlusion

Ischemia

Necrosis

9

In what situations may a liver be prone to rupture?

Trauma

Amyloidosis

Lipidosis

ie increased friability of parenchyma

10

Which of the zones of hepatic lobules is most vunerable to passive hyperaemia?

Zone 3 - closest to central vein

11

Which type of passive congestionmay be seen as an agonal change?

Acute

12

Describe this lesion.

Name a possible sequelae

The parenchyma of the liver shows disseminated round black lesions with non-affected tissue showing either redenning or multifocally shown to be pale tan. The surface of the liver is diffusely roughened. 

Chronic disseminated severe fibrosing passive hyperaemia of the liver

Sequelae: acquired porto-systemic shunt

13

Chronic fibrosis of the liver leading to reduced and inadequate liver function.

Cirrhosis

14

What is shown here?

Possible cause?

Dilation of non-functioning tortuous vessels between the portal vein and caudal vena cava.

Due to hepatic fibrosis/ cirrhosis

15

Acute passive congestion due to heart failure

16

Teleangiectasis

Dilation of functional vessels - sinusoids in the liver

17

Describe this lesion

Multifocal to coelescing black irregularly shaped (3cm across) lesions can be seen on the surface of this liver and also present on the cut surface.

Acute multifocal to coelescing severe teleangiectasis of hepatic sinusoids

18

Irregular blood-filled cystic spaces in the liver parenchyma.

Cause? 

Peliosis hepatis

Cause: focal hepatocyte necrosis

19

The most metabolically active hepatocytes are found where in hepatic ascini?

Zone 3 - centrolobular

20

Histologically how do degenerating hepatocytes appear?

Why?

  • Cloudy
  • Swollen
  • Rounded cells 

ie Hydropic degeneration

21

Right of the image - hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes due to influx of Na+ and H2O

22

Atrophy of the liver due to external pressure - neoplasia, dilated viscera etc

23

In which four situations can hepatic lipidosis occur?

  1. Nutritional - obesity/ fat rich diet
  2. XS FFA released from adipose due -ve energy balance
  3. Hypoxic lipidosis - decreased beta oxidation of fatty
  4. Toxic lipidosis due to decreased apoproteins

 

24

Describe this lesion

The surface and deep tissue is focally extensively pale tan, with about 80% of the hepatic tissue being affected. The tissue itself is extremely friable when touched.

Diffuse moderate subacute hepatic lipidosis

25

Pale yellow, greasy tissue seen with hepatic lipidosis

26

Vacuolation and peripherisation of hepatocyte nuclei seen with hepatic lipidosis

27

Which type of stain is used for visualisation of lipids in hepatocytes?

Oil red orange

28

What three conditions can animals be prediposed to hepatic lipidosis?

Hyperlipidaemia ​- DM, pancreatitis, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, nutritional

  • equine hyperlipidaemia, feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis

Ketosis - starvation, DM, pregnancy, lactation

  • Sheep; pregnancy toxaemia “twin lamb disease”

Hypoglycaemia and fatty liver syndrome in small dog breeds

29

How can ketosis lead to hepatic lipidosis

Increased demand for gluconeogenesis or glucose, impaired utilisation of glucose

Excessive breakdown of adipose tissue

Increased free fatty acids

30

Why does hyperadrenocorticism lead to hepatic lipidosis?

Action of glucocorticoids leads to: 

  • Decreased lipogenesis
  • Increased lipolysis of adipose tissue
  • Increased catabolism of skeletal muscle protein
  • Increased gluconeogenesis in the liver (↑ glycogen stores)