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Flashcards in Neuropathology Deck (33):
1

Name three infectious agents which affect the grey matter of the brain.

(x7 in total)

  1. Rabies - Lyssavirus
  2. Pseudorabies - suid Herpes virus 1
  3. Teschen disease - Picornaviridae
  4. Borna disease - Bornavirus
  5. West Nile Encephalitis - Flavivirus
  6. Louping ill - Flavivirus
  7. Listeriosis - Listeria monocytogenes

2

What is shown here?

Describe.

Q image thumb

Negri bodies

Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies 

3

What is shown here?

What cells make up the structure?

Q image thumb

Glial nodule

Made up of microglia (macrophage-like) - activated rod cells - surrounding necrotic tissue

4

What histological features are associated with pseudorabies?

  • Non-suppurative
  • Meningopolioencephalitis
  • Glial nodules
  • Neurophagia
  • Neuronal nodules

5

What is shown here?

Describe the lesion.

Q image thumb

Neurophagic nodule

Microglia surrounding neurone

6

What clinical presentation is associated with pseudorabies?

Pruritis

Violet scratching

Automutilation

7

Swine polioencephalitis is also known as..

Teschen disease

8

Viral polioencephalitis is characterised by what type of inflammation?

NON-SUPPURATIVE

9

What histological features are associated with Techen disease?

  • Non-suppurative 
  • Polioencephalitis
  • Neuronal necrosis
  • Glial nodules
  • Neurophagia

10

Neuronal death/ damage is characterised by what histological features?

Reversible: Chromatolysis (enlarged cytoplasmic volume and nucleus pushed to the periphery) - oxidative stress

Irreversible: Vacuolation and red hypoxic neurones (hypereosinophilic) - excitotoxicity and oxidative stress

11

This viral disease is selective for the grey matter of hippocampus, cerebral cortex and brainstem.

What histological features are associated with this disease?

Bornavirus

  • Non-suppurative
  • Polioencephalomyelitis
  • Neuronal degeneration
  • Neuronophagia

12

West nile encephalitis is characterised by what histological changes?

  • Non-suppurative 
  • Polioencephalomyelitis

Also affects grey matter of the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord

13

This flavivirus caused disease targets purkinje cells and causes gliosis and leptomeningitis.

Louping ill

14

This bacteria causes encephalitis via retrograde axonal transport to the brain before causing multifocal microabscessation of the grey matter.

Listeria monocytogenes

15

Name three infectious agents which affect the white matter of the brain.

  • Canine distemper virus - morbilivirus
  • Post-vaccinal distemper
  • Maedi-visna - lentivirus

16

What histological changes are associated with Maedi Visna virus?

  • Granulomatous leukoencephalitis
  • Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration
  • Cavitation and malacia
  • Choroiditis and meningitis

17

What histological changes are associated with Canine distemper virus?

Remember two phases.

Demyelinating leukoencephalitis

  • Acute: pale and demyelinated
  • Chronic: non-suppurative w/ cavitation
  • Post-vaccinal: 2 weeks post vaccination

18

Name the four parasitic causes of polioencephalitis. 

  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Neospora caninum
  • Sarcocystis neurona/ tenella
  • Taenia multiceps

19

What is GID?

What pathological changes does it cause?

Coerneurosis caused by Taenia multiceps

Brain fluid filled cysts

20

How does the pathology of T. gondii differ between young and old animals?

Young: non-suppurative polioencephalitis and gliosis

Old: necrotising and granulomatous encephalitis

21

Equine protozoal encephalomyelitis is caused by what pathological agent?

What histological signs are observed?

Sarcocystis neurona

Necrotising myelitis

22

Name two causes of infectious meningitis.

  • H. somni - sleeper syndrome
  • GME - granulomatous meningoencephalitis

23

This virus causes spinal cord inflammation (myelitis) and petechial/ ecchymoid haemorrhage of white and grey matter.

Equine herpes virus 1

24

Name three viral causes of vasculitis.

  • Classical swine fever: Pestivirus
  • Rubarths disease: Canine adenovirus 1
  • Malignant catarrhal fever: Ovine herpes virus 1

25

What histological changes are associated with canine adenovirus 1? 

Amphophilic inclusion bodies in endothelium and vasculitis & haemorrhage

26

What histological changes are associated with classical swine fever?

  • Disseminated
  • Non-suppurative 
  • Meningoencephalitis

27

Why is the CNS prone to ischemia?

High metabolic demand

No local storage

Few minutes of hypoxia leads to neuronal death

28

What is the difference between hypoxia and ischemia?

Ischemia is a reduced blood flow of normally oxygenated blood

Hypoxia is normal flow of low oxygenated blood

29

An ischemic brain infarct can result from what?

Vascular thrombosis

Emboli - tumour bacterial

Intracarotid injection

30

Q image thumb

Siderocalcinosis - depositation of Ca and Fe in vessel walls, occurs with ischemic infarcts

31

How can infectious agents reach the brain?

Immune complexes

Within macrophages

Local accumulation within vessels

Retrograde axonal transport

32

What is the difference between Hensen type 1 and 2 disc degeneration?

1 - extrusion of disc material

2 - protrusion without herniated disc

33