FA - Micro - Virology (2016) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FA - Micro - Virology (2016) Deck (83):
1

Envelope protein of HDV?

HBsAg.

2

Live attenuated vaccine that can be given to HIV(+) patients?

MMR ==> IN PATIENTS who do NOT show signs of immunodeficiency.

3

All DNA viruses are double stranded EXCEPT:

PARVO (ss negative).

4

All DNA viruses have LINEAR GENOMES EXCEPT:

1. Papilloma + Polyoma ==> CIRCULAR and SUPERCOILED.
2. Hepadna ==> Circular, incomplete.

5

HSV-1 - Notes:

MCC of sporadic encephalitis. Can present as:
1. Altered mental status.
2. Seizures.
3. +/- APHASIA.
4. KLUVER-BUCY !!!

6

Receptors used by viruses - CMV:

INTEGRINS ==> HEPARAN SULFATE.

7

Receptors used by viruses - EBV:

CD21.

8

Receptors used by viruses - HIV:

CD4
CCR5
CXCR4.

9

Receptors used by viruses - Rabies:

Nicotinic AChR.

10

Receptors used by viruses - Rhinovirus:

ICAM-1.

11

Yellow fever virus - Liver biopsy?

May see COUNCILMAN BODIES = EOSINOPHILIC APOPTOTIC GLOBULES.

12

Most important GLOBAL CAUSE OF INFANTILE GASTROENTERITIS:

ROTAVIRUS = SEGMENTED dsRNA virus (Reovirus).

13

What does CDC recommends about rotavirus?

ROUTINE VACCINATION OF ALL INFANTS.

14

Croup is ...?

ACUTE LARYNGOTRACHEOBRONCHITIS.

15

Croup is caused by ...?

Parainfluenza viruses (paramyxovirus).

16

Croup (acute laryngotracheobronchitis) - Features:

1. "Seal-like" barking cough.
2. Inspiratory stridor.

17

Croup - Sign on X-ray:

Narrowing of upper trachea + subglottis leads to ...
STEEPLE SIGN ON X-RAY.

18

Severe croup can result in ...?

PULSUS PARADOXUS 2o to UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION.

19

Measles (rubeola) virus - Lymphadenitis with ...?

WARTHIN-FINKELDEY GIANT CELLS (fused lymphocytes) in a background of PARACORTICAL HYPERPLASIA.

20

Ebola virus - What genus?

FILOVIRUS.

21

Ebola virus - Targets:

1. Endothelial cells.
2. Phagocytes.
3. Hepatocytes.

22

Ebola - Incubation of ...?

21 days.

23

Ebola virus - Presents with ...?

Abrupt onset of:
1. Flu-like symptoms.
2. Diarrhea/vomiting.
3. High fever.
4. Myalgia.

24

Ebola virus - Can progress to ...?

1. DIC.
2. DIFFUSE HEMORRHAGE.
3. SHOCK.

25

Ebola virus - Diagnosed with ...?

RT-PCR within 48h of SYMPTOM ONSET.

26

Ebola virus - Mortality:

HIGH.

27

Ebola virus - Transmission requires ...?

DIRECT CONTACT WITH:
1. Bodily fluids.
2. Fomites (including dead bodies).
3. Infected bats or primates (apes/monkeys).

28

Ebola virus - Incidence of nosocomial infection:

HIGH INCIDENCE OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION.

29

Ebola virus - Tx:

SUPPORTIVE - No definitive treatment.

30

Ebola virus - Preventing transmission ...?

1. STRICT ISOLATION of infected individual.
2. BARRIER PRACTICES of health care workers.

31

HAV - Liver biopsy:

1. Hepatocyte SWELLING.
2. Monocyte infiltration.
3. Councilman bodies.

32

HBV - Liver biopsy:

1. Granular + eosinophilic "GROUND GLASS" appearance.
2. Cytotoxic T cells mediate damage.

33

HCV - Liver biopsy:

Lymphoid aggregates with focal areas of MACROVESICULAR STEATOSIS.

34

HDV - Liver biopsy:

HBV.

35

HEV - Liver biopsy:

PATCHY NECROSIS.

36

Anti-HAV IgM:

IgM antibody to HAV.
==> BEST TEST to detect ACUTE Hep A.

37

Anti-HAV IgG:

IgG antibody indicates PRIOR HAV infection and/or prior vaccination.
==> PROTECTS AGAINST REINFECTION.

38

HBsAg:

Antigen found on surface of HBV ==> INDICATES HBV INFECTION.

39

Anti-HBs:

Antibody to HBsAg ==> INDICATES IMMUNITY TO Hep B.

40

HBcAg:

Antigen associated with CORE of HBV.

41

Anti-HBc IgM:

Acute/recent infection.

42

Anti-HBc IgG:

Prior exposure or chronic infection.

43

IgM anti-HBc may be the ...?

SOLE POSITIVE marker of infection during window period.

44

HBeAg - Secreted by ...?

INFECTED HEPATOCYTE INTO CIRCULATION.

45

HBeAg is NOT ...?

NOT PART OF MATURE HBV VIRION.

46

HBeAg indicates ...?

ACTIVE VIRAL REPLICATION ==> HIGH TRANSMISSIBILITY.

47

Anti-HBe:

Antibody to HBeAg.

48

Anti-HBe indicates ...?

LOW TRANSMISSIBILITY.

49

Common diseases of HIV-positive adults - General picture:

As CD4 cell count decreases ==>
1. Incr. risk for REACTIVATION of past infections = TB, HSV, shingles.
2. DISSEMINATION of bacterial/fungal infections (eg coccidioidomycosis).
3. NHLs.

50

CD4 UNDER 5 HUNDRED - 6 major pathogens:

1. C.albicans.
2. EBV.
3. B.henselae.
4. HHV-8.
5. Cryptosporidium spp.
6. HPV.

51

C.albicans - Presentation:

ORAL THRUSH.

52

C.albicans - Findings:

1. Scrabable white plaque.
2. Pseudohyphae on microscopy.

53

EBV - Presentation:

ORAL HAIRY LEUKOPLAKIA.

54

EBV - Findings:

UNSCRAPABLE white plaque on lateral tongue.

55

B.henselae - Presentation:

Bacillary angiomatosis.

56

B.henselae - Findings:

BIOPSY WITH NEUTROPHILIC INFLAMMATION.

57

HHV-8 - Findings:

BIOPSY WITH LYMPHOCYTIC INFLAMMATION.

58

Cryptosporidium spp. - Presentation:

Chronic, watery diarrhea.

59

Cryptosporidium spp. - Findings:

ACID-FAST OOCYSTS in stool.

60

HPV - Presentation:

SCC ==>
1. Anus (MSM).
2. Cervix (women).

61

CD4 cell count UNDER 2 HUNDRED - 3 major pathogens:

1. HIV.
2. JC (reactivation).
3. P.jirovecii.

62

HIV - Presentation:

DEMENTIA.

63

JC - Presentation:

PML.

64

JC - Findings:

NON ENHANCING AREAS OF DEMYELINATION ON MRI.

65

P.jirovecii - Presentation:

PCP.

66

P.jirovecii - Findings:

Ground-glass opacities on CXR.

67

CD4 cell count UNDER 1 HUNDRED - 8 major pathogens:

1. A.fumigatus.
2. C.neoformans.
3. C.albicans.
4. CMV.
5. EBV.
6. H.capsulatum.
7. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, MAC.
8. Toxoplasma gondii.

68

A.fumigatus - Presentation:

1. Hemoptysis.
2. Pleuritic pain.

69

C.neoformans - Presentation:

Meningitis.

70

C.neoformans - Findings:

1. Encapsulated yeast on India ink stain.
2. Capsular antigen (+).

71

C.albicans - Presentation:

ESOPHAGITIS.

72

C.albicans - Findings:

1. White plaques on endoscopy.
2. Yeast + Pseudohyphae on biopsy.

73

CMV - Presentation:

1. Retinitis.
2. Esophagitis.
3. Colitis.
4. Pneumonitis.
5. Encephalitis.

74

CMV - Findings:

1. LINEAR ULCERS on endoscopy.
2. Cotton-wool spots on fundoscopy.
3. Biopsy ==> INTRANUCLEAR (owl eye) inclusion bodies.

75

EBV - Presentation:

B-cell lymphoma ==> NHL, or 1o CNS lymphoma.

76

EBV - Findings:

CNS lymphoma ==> Ring, enhancing, may be SOLITARY (vs TOXOPLASMA).

77

H.capsulatum - Presentation:

1. Fever.
2. Weight loss.
3. Fatigue.
4. Cough.
5. Dyspnea.
6. Nausea.
7. Vomiting.
8. Diarrhea.

78

H.capsulatum - Findings:

Oval yeast cells WITHIN MACROS.

79

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, MAC - Presentation:

1. Non specific systemic symptoms (fever, night sweats, weight loss).
2. Focal lymphadenitis.

80

Toxoplasma gondii - Presentation:

Brain abscessES.

81

Toxo - Findings:

MULTIPLE ring-enhancing lesions on MRI.

82

Prions are resistant to ...?

Standard sterilizing procedures, INCLUDING STANDARD AUTOCLAVING.

83

Viral genetics - Complementation - Example:

HDV requires the presence of replicating HBV to supply HBsAg ==> THE ENVELOPE PROTEIN OF HDV.