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0

Causes of common cold:

1. Rhinovirus
2. Coronavirus
3. Adenovirus
4. Influenza C virus
5. Coxsackievirus

1

MCCs of conjunctivitis:

1. H.influenza
2. Adenovirus
3. S.pneumoniae

2

Five MC pediatric diseases with rash:

1. Measles - Measles virus
2. Rubella - Rubella virus
3. Scarlet fever - S.pyogenes
4. Roseola - HHV-6
5. Erythema infectiosum - B19

3

Major difference between HSV-1 and HSV-2?

HSV-1 --> Above the waist --> Eye and mouth lesions.
HSV-2 --> Below the waist --> Genital lesions.
(Oral-genital sex can reverse the two).

4

Organisms that cross the placenta and therefore allow infection to pass from pregnant mother to fetus (TORCHES):

TOxoplasmosis
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
HErpes, HIV
Syphilis

5

MC viral cause of mental retardation in US:

CMV

6

HBV, HCV, HDV have:

1. Blood transmission
2. Chronic carrier state
3. Cirrhosis
4. HCC

7

MCCs of aseptic meningitis:

1. Coxsackievirus
2. Echovirus
3. Mumps virus

8

Palm & sole rash:

1. Syphilis
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
3. Coxsackievirus

9

HAV, HEV have:

1. Oral transmission
2. No chronic carrier state
3. No cirrhosis
4. No HCC

10

MCC of infectious diarrhea in infants and children?

Rotaviruses.

11

What includes the differential diagnosis of colorado tick virus?

1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
2. Tularemia

12

What are the 3 viridae included in Arboviruses (ARthropod BOrne virus)?

1. Togaviridae --> EEE, WEE, VEE.
2. Flaviviidae --> West nile, yellow fever, dengue fever, St.Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis
3. Bunyaviridae --> California encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, Sandfly fever

13

MC human disease caused by an arbovirus:

Dengue fever

14

MCC of epidemic encephalitis:

Japanese encephalitis virus

15

MCCs of pneumonia in young children:

1. RSV
2. Parainfluenza virus

16

MCCs of aseptic meningitis:

1. Coxsackievirus
2. Echovirus
3. Mumps virus

17

MC helminthic infection:

Ascariasis - Ascaris lumbricoides

18

MC parasitic cause of myocarditis:

Trichinosis - Trichinella spiralis

19

MCCs of cystitis among sexually active women:

1. E.coli
2. S.saprophyticus

20

When you see endocarditis with a prosthetic valve, think:

S.epidermidis WITHIN 60 days of valve replacement.
Viridans strep AFTER 60 days of valve replacement.

21

MCCs of neonatal meningitis:

1. Group B strep
2. E.coli
3. Listeria

22

Common causes of pneumonia in adults (40-65):

1. S.pneumo
2. H.influenza
3. Legionella

23

Common causes of pneumonia in elderly (>65):

1. S.pneumoniae
2. Gram(-) rods
3. H.influenza

24

MCCs of meningitis in 60+ yrs:

1. S.pneumoniae
2. Gram(-) rods
3. Listeria

25

What is important about Listeria and Bacteroides?

Listeria --> Only Gram(+) with endotoxin.
Bacteroides --> Only Gram(-) without TYPICAL endotoxin.

26

MCCs of meningitis 6-60yrs:

1. N.meningitis
2. Enterovirus
3. S.pneumoniae

27

Similar nosocomial infections to K.pneumonia:

Serratia marcascens and Enterobacter

28

MCCs of neonatal meningitis:

1. GBS
2. E.coli
3. Listeria

29

MCCs of neonatal pneumonia:

1. GBS
2. E.coli

30

4 "F's" of Shigella transmission:

Fingers, flies, food, feces.

31

3 Common causes of diarrhea:

1. Rotavirus
2. C.jejuni
3. ETEC

32

MCCs of meningitis in 6 months - 6 yrs:

1. S.pneumoniae
2. N.meningitis
3. H.influenza type B - Hib vaccine has reduced incidence.

33

Common causes of atypical pneumonia:

1. Mycoplasma
2. Legionella
3. Chlamydia
4. Viruses

34

The only live-attenuated vaccines for BACTERIA:

1. F.tularensis
2. BCG for TB

35

Palm and sole rash:

1. Syphilis
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
3. Coxsackievirus

36

MC diseases in the U.S. spread by vectors:

1. Lyme disease
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
3. Tularemia

37

MCCs of pneumonia in adults:

1. Mycoplasma
2. C.pneumoniae
3. S.pneumoniae

38

Difference between Chlamydiae and Rickettsiae:

Chlamydiae --> replicate within inclusion bodies.
Rickettsiae --> within cytoplasm.

39

Common causes of non gonococcal urethritis:

1. C.trachomatis
2. Ureaplasma urealyticum

40

MCC of fungal meningitis:

Cryptococcus neoformans

41

Diarrhea caused by protozoa:

Bloody --> E.histolytica
Fatty --> G.lamblia
Watery --> C.parvum

42

MCC of aseptic meningitis:

1. Coxsackievirus
2. Echovirus
3. Mumps virus

43

MCC of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children:

Rotavirus

44

MC disease by an arbovirus:

Dengue fever

45

MCC of epidemic encephalitis:

Japanese encephalitis virus.

46

MCC of pneumonia in young children:

1. RSV
2. Parainfluenza virus

47

Exotoxins that cause INCREASED cAMP/cGMP:

V.cholerae --> cholera toxin.
E.coli (LT toxin and ST toxin)
B.pertussis --> Pertussis toxin

48

Exotoxins that inhibits protein synthesis:

1. C.diphtheriae --> Diphtheria toxin
2. P.aeruginosa --> Exotoxin A
3. S.dysenteriae --> Shiga toxin
4. E.coli --> Shiga-like toxin

49

Exotoxins that block the release of neurotransmitters:

1. C.tetani --> tetanospasmin
2. C.botulinum --> Botulinum toxin