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Flashcards in Factors Influencing Wine Production Deck (52)
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What are the 3 parts of a grape and what characteristics do they contribute to the making of wine?

• Skin: color - tannins - flavors
• Pulp: water - sugar - acids - flavors
• Stems and Seeds: tannins


What 5 ingredients does a grape vine need to thrive?

• Carbon dioxide
• Sunlight
• Warmth
• Water
• Nutrients


What are the 4 stages of grape formation and ripening?

• flowering
• fruit set – flowers become grapes
• véraison
• ripe grapes


Name the 3 types of Climate and Temperatures for wine production and their Results.

• Cool climate - 16.5°C (62°F) or below
- less alcohol - lighter body - less tannin - more acidity

• Moderate climate - 16.5°C (62°F) to 18.5°C (65°F)

• Warm climate - 18.5°C (65°F) to 21°C (70°F)
- more alcohol - fuller body - more tannin - less acidity


Name 5 vineyard activities for growing grapes.

• training and pruning
• spraying
• yield
• irrigation
• harvesting


Name 6 weather influences on the grape growing environment.

• Temperature
• Sunlight
• Drought
• Rain
• Hail
• Frost


Name 9 environmental influences on the grape growing

• rivers, slopes and aspect
• cloud, fog and mist
• mountains, soils and air


Between what latitudes are best for growing grapes?

Between 30 degrees and 50 degrees


The equation for Photosynthesis grape growing is....

water + carbon dioxide + sunlight = sugar


What are the 3 necessary conditions for botrytis/noble rot?

• ripe grapes
• damp, misty mornings
• warm, dry afternoons


What are the 3 steps for producing Icewine/Eiswein?

• grapes freeze on vine (winter)
• picked while frozen
• pressed while frozen


The growing season begins for a vine in ___.



The growing season ends for a vine in ___.



During which season are vines dormant?



Are most wines in the world made with European or North American vine species?

What is the name of the vine species used?

Most are made using a European vine species named Vitis vinifera.


Name some commonly found Vitis Vinifera varieties (8).

• Sauvignon Blanc
• Pinot Grigio
• Riesling
• Chardonnay
• Syrah
• Grenache
• Merlot
• Cabernet Sauvigon


What flavor do tannins produce?



How many years can a vine live?

If it's in a healthy environment, a vine can live more than 50 years and upwards of 100 years.


List a vine's annual cycle.

• Flowering: spring
• Fruit set: early summer
• Véraison: summer
• Ripening time: summer/late summer
• Harvest: late summer/early autumn
• Dormancy: winter


How are the flowers of grape vines pollinated?

Vine's flowers are pollinated by the wind.


Before ripening, grapes are high in ___ and low in ___.

Before ripening, grapes are high in acid and low in sugar.


As grapes ripen, acidity levels ___ and sugar levels ___.

As grapes ripen, acidity levels decrease and sugar levels increase.

It is during this ripening period that a grape's aromatics will develop as well.


If grapes remain on the vine after the time they're usually harvested, what happens to them?

The grapes will develop "extra-ripeness", meaning that the levels of both aromas and sugars will magnify and concentrate.


What happens to grapes if they are left to raisinate on the vine?

• Water in the grapes evaporates thereby concentrating acids and sugars;

• Aromas in the grape change from ripe/fresh to dried/dimpled.


Botrytis/noble rot:

what is it?
what does it do to the grapes?
what are the optimal conditions for it to form?

What it is:
• Botrytis is a fungus that grows on the outside of grapes that can cause noble rot.

What it does:
• The fungus punctures the grape skins which allows the water inside the grape to evaporate, thereby concentrating sugars, flavors, and acids.

• In order for noble rot to form, the Botrytis fungus requires misty mornings or humid conditions followed by warm, dry afternoons (the dry afternoons slow the growth of Botrytis and prevent it from completely rotting the grapes).


List 3 ways to concentrate grape sugars to make sweet wine.

• Extra-ripeness
• Botrytis
• Frozen grapes


Give a classic example of a wine whose grapes are affected by Botrytis.

• Sauternes (Bordeaux, France)
• Aszú (Tokaj, Hungary)


What is the difference between training and pruning?

• How the vine is supported and arranged to optimize sunlight and productivity

• Removal of plant parts to control size and form of the vine, optimize production potential, and achieve balance between vegetative growth (the leaves) and fruit


How are most vines trained?

On trellises


During which season are vines usually pruned?

Why do farmers prune their vines?

Vines are usually pruned in the winter when they're dormant.

Farmers prune their vines to:
• Help maintain their shape
• Balance fruit production and shoot growth