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Flashcards in Sparkling Wines Deck (36)
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1

What basic formula is needed to make Sparkling Wine?

sugars in grapes + yeast = alcohol + carbon dioxide

2

How is a second fermentation created for sparkling wine and by what 2 methods?

CO₂ created by fermentation is trapped and dissolved in wine either by:
- bottle fermentation
- tank fermentation

3

What grape varieties are used to make Champagne in France?

Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Meunier

4

What grape variety is used to make Asti in Italy?

Moscato (Muscat)

5

What grape varieties are used to make Cava in Spain?

local varieties
Chardonnay
Pinot Noir

6

Which types of sparking wine use the bottle fermentation method?

Champagne
Cava

7

Which types of sparking wine use the tank method?

Prosecco DOC
Asti DOCG

8

What grape varieties are used to make Prosecco in Italy

Glera

9

What steps are used to make sparkling wine by Tank Method

dry base wine
yeast + sugar added
sealed tank
second fermentation
lees removed (filtration)
bottled under pressure
dry sparkling wine

10

What steps are used to make sparkling wine by Bottle Fermentation (Traditional Method)?

Second Fermentation and Yeast Autolysis (in bottle)
- Base wine + yeast + sugar
Riddling (for moving yeast deposits)
- Gyropalates
- Hand -riddling
Disgorgement (for yeast removal)
- frozen wine and yeast being ejected
Dosage
- Wine and sugar added
Resealing

11

What are some labeling terms associated with sparkling wine?

Brut
Demi-Sec
Non-Vintage/Vintage
Traditional Method/ Méthode traditionnelle
Méthode Cap Classique (South Africa)

12

What are the main characteristics of the grape variety Glera (for Prosecco)?

light- or medium-bodied
dry or off-dry
fruit flavours: apple, melon

13

What steps are used to make sparkling wine by Asti Method of tank fermentation?

grape juice
partial fermentation in pressurised tank
tank sealed to retain CO₂
fermentation stopped by filtration before fermentation is complete
low-alcohol sweet sparkling wine

14

What are the main characteristics of the grape variety Moscato (Muscat) for Asti?

sweet
light-bodied
pronounced floral and fruit flavours:
- grape
- pear
- peach
- blossom

15

What is a "base wine"?

Base wine is a still wine that is a result of primary fermentation.

It is usually dry, low in alcohol (10-11%), and high in acid

16

Base wines are typically a blend of what?

Any of the following:

1. Grape varieties
e.g. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir

2. Vintages
e.g. NV (Non-Vintage)

3. Villages/terroirs
e.g. Different vineyards across 2+ villages which can vary in soil type

17

What are the 2 major by-products of secondary fermentation?

CO2
Alcohol

18

How much alcohol is created by secondary fermentation?

About 1.5%

19

What is the main flavor objective for bottle fermented, or Traditional Method, sparkling wines?

Autolytic flavors, such as bread, toast, and biscuit.

20

What is the term used on champagnes or other sparkling wines when the base wines are blends of different vintages?

Non-vintage (NV)

21

What is a Vintage Champagne?

- A champagne that is made of 100% of the grapes from the year stated on the bottle;
- Only made in exceptional years;
- See extended periods of lees aging;
- Complex and age-worthy

22

What is the minimum requirement of lees aging for non-vintage Champagne?

12 months

23

What is the climate of Catalunya, Spain?

Warm

24

How do the grapes destined for sparkling wine in Catalunya, a warm climate, retain their acidity?

Grapes are harvested early.

25

Generally, which has more pronounced autolytic aromas + flavors:

NV Champagne
NV Cava
Why?

NV Champagne

Cava spends less time on its lees than Champagne, which translates to less pronounced autolytic aromas in the final wine.

26

Where in Spain can Cava be made?

Most regions in Spain are allowed to produce Cava, but the majority is made in Catalunya in northeastern Spain.

27

What does the South African term Méthode Cap Classique indicate?

That the sparkling wine was made using Traditional Method.

28

Besides Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, what other grape in South Africa is widely used in Méthode Cap Classique?

Chenin Blanc

29

The sparkling winemaking method best for aromatic grape varietals is ___.

Why?

Tank Method because it avoids autolytic aromas + flavors; autolysis is not beneficial for aromatic grapes.

30

Which technique is more cost effective:

Traditional Method
Tank Method
Why?

Tank Method is more cost effective because the wine undergoes secondary fermentation in large tanks instead of individual bottles, and filtration and disgorgement are done in mechanized, big batches.