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Flashcards in Winemaking Process Deck (42)
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1

What 3 things do oak vessels (barrels) contribute to wine?

flavor
oxygen
softer tannins

2

What are the 3 main features of stainless steel and concrete (inert vessels)?

fermentation and storage
no flavor added
can be airtight

3

What are the 5 winemaking steps for the production of Red Wine?

crushing
alcoholic fermentation
pressing
storage or maturation
packaging

4

State the key stages of the alcoholic fermentation process.

Yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide

5

Describe the 10 ways in which winemaking options can influence the style and quality of wine produced.

Adjustments: Addition of sugar, adjustment to acidity
Fermentation temperatures: Cool, warm
Red wine: Extraction
Rosé wine: Short maceration, blending
Sweet wine: Fermentation stopped, sweetness added
Vessel types: Stainless steel, concrete, oak
Oak vessel types: Small, large, new, old, level of toast
Malolactic conversion
Lees
Blending: Consistency, complexity, style

6

Identify the key changes that occur to a wine during bottle ageing (red and white wine).

Red wine: Color, tannin, aromas and flavors
White wine: Color, aromas and flavors

7

What 3 things does a wine need to age?

flavor concentration
flavors that can develop in a positive way
high acid, tannin or sugar

8

What are the 5 winemaking steps for the production of white wine?

crushing
pressing
alcoholic fermentation
storage or maturation
packaging

9

Name 2 other oak alternatives to oak barrels.

oak staves
oak chips

10

What are the results of malolactic conversion in the winemaking process?

lower acidity
secondary flavors:
- butter
- cream

11

What 3 methods may be used in the making of sweet wines?

concentration of grape sugars
stopping the fermentation
- removing the yeast
- killing the yeast
adding sweetness

12

What are the 5 winemaking steps for the production of rosé wine?

crushing
alcoholic fermentation
draining
storage
packaging

13

Name 3 reasons for the blending of wine.

style
consistency
complexity

14

Alcoholic fermentation is an exothermic reaction.

What does that mean?

Alcoholic fermentation creates and releases heat.

15

What is the optimum fermentation temperature for white wine?

Between 12°C - 22°C (54°F - 72°F)

Rosé wines are typically fermented at similar temperatures to white wines.

16

What effect does a lower fementation temperature have on a white wine?

Lower fermentation temperatures bring about fruitier aromas.

17

What are some commonly practiced adjustment techniques?

- Adding sugar to increase alcohol
- Adding acid (acidification)

18

What is the most common adjustment made to white grapes from warm/hot climates, and why?

Acidification

Warm climate grapes can have lower levels of natural acidity.

19

How does adding sugar to the must before or during fermentation change the final wine?

Adding sugar before or during fermentation increases the alcohol level in a wine.

20

What is residual sugar?

Sugar that remains in a wine after fermentation.

21

What does "off-dry" mean?

Off-dry is when a wine's residual sugar is just-perceptible.

22

What are 2 additions a winemaker can use to sweeten up a dry wine?

Name 1 other way winemakers can make a wine sweet.

- Unfermented grape juice
- Concentrated grape juice

Other way: blend the dry wine with a sweet wine

23

What flavors will aging in new oak add to white wines?

- Vanilla
- Toast
- Smoke
- Coconut
- Baking spice (clove, dill, nutmeg, anise)
- Sweet spice (molasses, brown sugar, butterscotch)

24

What determines how much flavor an oak barrel adds to a wine?

- How the barrel was made (what was its level of toasting?)
- Age of barrel (if it's new, it'll impart more wood flavor than a used one)
- Size of barrel (smaller ones encourage more oxygen transfer, helping flavors evolve sooner)

25

Why are the effects of oak felt more so in small barrels vs. large barrels?

Because in smaller barrels there is a greater amount of wine surface area touching the oak.

26

What are lees?

Lees are dead yeast cells that fall to the bottom of a vessel after fermentation.

27

What are the effects of stirring up the lees or keeping a wine on its lees?

- Lees add a creamy, round texture and richer body
- Lees add bread-like flavors (bread dough, freshly baked bread)

28

What is malolactic conversion?

Malolactic conversion the transformation of tarter malic acid (the same acid in an under-ripe apple) into softer lactic acid (the same acid in yogurt).

29

What causes/carries out malolactic conversion:

bacteria
yeast
fungus

Bacteria

30

When does malolactic conversion occur?

After alcoholic fermentation has completed.