Flashcards in Farm animal MSK disease Deck (100)
Based on the AHDB Dairy Mobility Scoring system, what mobility score is appropriate for the following description?
Steps uneven (rhythm or weight bearing) or strides shortened
Affected limb or limbs not immediately identifiable
Mobility score 1
Based on the AHDB Dairy Mobility scoring system, what score is most appropriate for the following description?
Walks with even weight bearing and rhythm on all four feet and flat back
Long fluid strides possible
Tracking well - back foot lands where fores have been
Mobility score 0
Based on the AHDH Mobility Scoring system, which score is most appropriate for the following description?
Severely impaired mobility
Unable to walk as fast as a brisk human pace (cannot keep up with healthy herd), uneven weight bearing on limb that is immediately identifiable and/or obviously shortened strides, usually arch at centre of back
Mobility score 3
Based on the AHDB Mobility Scoring system, which score is most appropriate for the following description?
Uneven weight bearing on limb that is immediately identifiable and/or obviously shortened strides
Usually with arch at centre of back
Mobility score 2
What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 0?
- No action required
- Routine preventative foot trimming when/if required
- Record mobility at next scoring session
What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 1?
- Routine (preventative) foot trimming when/if required
- Further observation recommended
What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 2?
- Lame, will benefit from treatment
- Attend to case as soon as practically possible
-Lift foot to establish cause prior to treatment
What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 3?
- Very lame
- Will benefit from treatment, requires urgent attention and nursing
- Should not be made to walk far, keep on straw yard or at grass
- Culling may be only possible solution
Where is the majority of lameness in cattle located?
List the non-infectious common foot lesions in cattle
- Sole bruising
- Sole/heel/toe ulcer
- White line disease
- Foreign body
Describe the appearance of sole ulcers in cattle
- Very mild: sole discolouration yellow to pink
- More severe red to purple
What causes sole bruising in cattle?
- Damage to corium (pressure) leading to leaking serum or blood being incorporated into new sole horn
- Sometimes sole too thin
Outline the development of sole ulcers in cattle
- Pressure points towards back of sole, lead to poor horn formation and bleeding in the horn
- Flesh (corium) protrudes through ulcer
- When present, often outer claws of both hind feet
Describe the appearance of white line disease in cattle
- Mild cases, wall separates from sole, sometimes with blood staining
- More severe cases become infected and pus is seen
- Pus can track up wall and burst out at coronary band or under sole to burst at heel
List the infectious foot lesions of cattle
- Digital dermatitis
- Heel erosion
- Interdigital growth
- Toe necrosis
Outline the development of digital dermatitis in cattle
- Infection of skin caused by bacteria
- Raw, painful erosion of skin, most commonly above heel bulbs
- Can also be found at front of feet, between toes
- Chronic forms have rubbery hairs sprouting from lesion
Outline the development of heel erosion in cattle
- Caused by enzymes produced by some bacteria which erode horn at heel
- Severe forms lead to deep pits and grooves
- Weight bearing surface of foot is lost
Outline the development of interdigital growths in cattle
- Protruding flesh between toes caused by any chronic irritation e.g. by bacteria responsible for heel erosion or foul
- Can become superinfected with digital dermatitis
Outline the development of heel ulcers in cattle
- Further back on foot than typical sole ulcer
- Sometimes tracks back to heel
Outline the development of foul in cattle
- Caused by bacteria, enter through broken skin between the claws
- Lead to swelling and characteristic smell
Outline the appearance of axial wall fissures in cattle
Appear as white line defect on inner wall, sometimes hard to spot
Outline the development of toe necrosis in cattle
- Rotten toe
- May start as toe ulcer or split wall with deep infection
- Digital dermatitis bacteria may be involved, infecting exposed corium and preventing healing
Outline the development of toe ulcers in cattle
- Particularly painful
- Often precipitated by thin soles
What are the 4 main farmer factors for healthy feet in cattle?
- Reduce infection pressure
- Improve hoof shape and horn quality
- Reduce forces on foot (good cow flow, comfort)
- Early lameness detection and prompt,effective treatment
What is the ideal anterior wall length and angle in cattle?
- Length 90mm
- Angle: 45-50degrees
What is the ideal heel height in younger and older cattle?
- Younger: 25-35mm
- Older: 30-45mm
Outline the method for corrective foot trimming
- First cut: trim toe to 90mm, measure from coronary band, leave longer if foot very overgrown or cow is large
- Second cut: even out thickness of the sole, avoid over thinning, leave 5-7mm step at toe
- third cut: dish out to reduce weight bearing at main sole ulcer site
List your differentials for a calf presented with reluctance to stand, reluctance to suckle, positional dystocia, lame, swelling in lower left leg, pyrexia (39.4˚ C), and how would you proceed with this investigation?
- Septic arthritis, most likely systemic
- Physical trauma to joint from manipulation during calving
- Next: examine navel, joint tap, provide analgesia using one off dose of meloxicam
In a calf with septic arthritis that has occurred as a systemic spread from navel ill, outline a conservative treatment programme
- Meloxicam one off dose (or carprofen)
- Antibiotics: systemic streptomycin + penicillin/amoxycillin