Farm animal MSK disease Flashcards Preview

MSK2 > Farm animal MSK disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Farm animal MSK disease Deck (100)
Loading flashcards...
1

Based on the AHDB Dairy Mobility Scoring system, what mobility score is appropriate for the following description?
Imperfect mobility
Steps uneven (rhythm or weight bearing) or strides shortened
Affected limb or limbs not immediately identifiable

Mobility score 1

2

Based on the AHDB Dairy Mobility scoring system, what score is most appropriate for the following description?
Good mobility
Walks with even weight bearing and rhythm on all four feet and flat back
Long fluid strides possible
Tracking well - back foot lands where fores have been

Mobility score 0

3

Based on the AHDH Mobility Scoring system, which score is most appropriate for the following description?
Severely impaired mobility
Unable to walk as fast as a brisk human pace (cannot keep up with healthy herd), uneven weight bearing on limb that is immediately identifiable and/or obviously shortened strides, usually arch at centre of back

Mobility score 3

4

Based on the AHDB Mobility Scoring system, which score is most appropriate for the following description?
Impaired mobility
Uneven weight bearing on limb that is immediately identifiable and/or obviously shortened strides
Usually with arch at centre of back

Mobility score 2

5

What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 0?

- No action required
- Routine preventative foot trimming when/if required
- Record mobility at next scoring session

6

What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 1?

- Routine (preventative) foot trimming when/if required
- Further observation recommended

7

What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 2?

- Lame, will benefit from treatment
- Attend to case as soon as practically possible
-Lift foot to establish cause prior to treatment

8

What action is most appropriate for a cow with mobility score 3?

- Very lame
- Will benefit from treatment, requires urgent attention and nursing
- Should not be made to walk far, keep on straw yard or at grass
- Culling may be only possible solution

9

Where is the majority of lameness in cattle located?

Hind limbs

10

List the non-infectious common foot lesions in cattle

- Sole bruising
- Sole/heel/toe ulcer
- White line disease
- Foreign body

11

Describe the appearance of sole ulcers in cattle

- Very mild: sole discolouration yellow to pink
- More severe red to purple

12

What causes sole bruising in cattle?

- Damage to corium (pressure) leading to leaking serum or blood being incorporated into new sole horn
- Sometimes sole too thin

13

Outline the development of sole ulcers in cattle

- Pressure points towards back of sole, lead to poor horn formation and bleeding in the horn
- Flesh (corium) protrudes through ulcer
- When present, often outer claws of both hind feet

14

Describe the appearance of white line disease in cattle

- Mild cases, wall separates from sole, sometimes with blood staining
- More severe cases become infected and pus is seen
- Pus can track up wall and burst out at coronary band or under sole to burst at heel

15

List the infectious foot lesions of cattle

- Digital dermatitis
- Heel erosion
- Interdigital growth
- Foul
- Toe necrosis

16

Outline the development of digital dermatitis in cattle

- Infection of skin caused by bacteria
- Raw, painful erosion of skin, most commonly above heel bulbs
- Can also be found at front of feet, between toes
- Chronic forms have rubbery hairs sprouting from lesion

17

Outline the development of heel erosion in cattle

- Caused by enzymes produced by some bacteria which erode horn at heel
- Severe forms lead to deep pits and grooves
- Weight bearing surface of foot is lost

18

Outline the development of interdigital growths in cattle

- Protruding flesh between toes caused by any chronic irritation e.g. by bacteria responsible for heel erosion or foul
- Can become superinfected with digital dermatitis

19

Outline the development of heel ulcers in cattle

- Further back on foot than typical sole ulcer
- Sometimes tracks back to heel

20

Outline the development of foul in cattle

- Caused by bacteria, enter through broken skin between the claws
- Lead to swelling and characteristic smell

21

Outline the appearance of axial wall fissures in cattle

Appear as white line defect on inner wall, sometimes hard to spot

22

Outline the development of toe necrosis in cattle

- Rotten toe
- May start as toe ulcer or split wall with deep infection
- Digital dermatitis bacteria may be involved, infecting exposed corium and preventing healing

23

Outline the development of toe ulcers in cattle

- Particularly painful
- Often precipitated by thin soles

24

What are the 4 main farmer factors for healthy feet in cattle?

- Reduce infection pressure
- Improve hoof shape and horn quality
- Reduce forces on foot (good cow flow, comfort)
- Early lameness detection and prompt,effective treatment

25

What is the ideal anterior wall length and angle in cattle?

- Length 90mm
- Angle: 45-50degrees

26

What is the ideal heel height in younger and older cattle?

- Younger: 25-35mm
- Older: 30-45mm

27

Outline the method for corrective foot trimming

- First cut: trim toe to 90mm, measure from coronary band, leave longer if foot very overgrown or cow is large
- Second cut: even out thickness of the sole, avoid over thinning, leave 5-7mm step at toe
- third cut: dish out to reduce weight bearing at main sole ulcer site

28

List your differentials for a calf presented with reluctance to stand, reluctance to suckle, positional dystocia, lame, swelling in lower left leg, pyrexia (39.4˚ C), and how would you proceed with this investigation?

- Septic arthritis, most likely systemic
- Physical trauma to joint from manipulation during calving

- Next: examine navel, joint tap, provide analgesia using one off dose of meloxicam

29

In a calf with septic arthritis that has occurred as a systemic spread from navel ill, outline a conservative treatment programme

- Meloxicam one off dose (or carprofen)
- Antibiotics: systemic streptomycin + penicillin/amoxycillin

30

In a calf with septic arthritis that has occurred as a systemic spread from navel ill, outline an aggressive treatment programme

- Culture and sensitivity of fluid from joint tap
- Joint lavage using saline via 14-16Gneedle
- Local/regional antibioics e.g. regional vein or directly intra-synovial streptomycin, amoxycillin
- Analgesia with meloxicam