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Flashcards in Small animal MSK disease Deck (100)
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1

Which breed of dog is predisposed to elbow dysplasia?

Labrador retriever

2

Which breed of dog is predisposed to cruciate disease?

West Highland White terrier

3

What conditions are more likely where there is chronic and progressive onset of lameness?

- Osteoarthritis
- Degenerative cruciate disease

4

What conditions are more likely with acute onset of lameness?

- Trauma
- Infection
- Foreign body

5

What conditions may present with acute worsening of a chronic lameness?

- Cruciate rupture on patellar subluxation
- Pathological fracture resulting from bone neoplasia

6

Outline the importance of activity in the history for a lameness examination of cat or dog

- Exercise tolerance and general activity important in cat, rarely show true lameness
- Ability to jump in cats
- Reluctance to negotiate stairs may indicate HL problem

7

Describe the common clinical course for panosteitis

Waxing and waning, shifting between different bones affected

8

Describe the common clinical course of a cruciate rupture

Acute lameness followed by slow improvement

9

Describe the common clinical course for patellar subluxation or superficial digital flexor tendon instability

Acute and intermittent signs, lame when slips out of position then sound when back into position

10

Describe the typical clinical presentation of foot pathology

Worse on harder surfaces

11

List the aspects of the examination of a small animal presented with lameness

- Observation in consulting room
- Dogs walked outside
- Full clinical examination
- Lameness examination
- Neurological examination

12

Describe the appearance of paws in a fully weight bearing vs not fully weight bearing

- Fully: paw spread
- Not fully weight bearing: paw slightly clenched

13

What may cause an inability to fix the stifle and how will this present clinically?

- Damage to quads due to patellar fracture,
rupture of patellar tendon, femoral nerve injury
- Stifle will drop as put weight on limb
- Stifle will flex

14

Describe a head nod in the assessment of lameness in the dog

Head nod on unaffected limb when walked as take more weight on normal leg, only used for forelimb

15

Describe the hip movement assessment in the identification of lameness in the dog

Used for hindlimbs, hip will rise higher and quicker on affected leg

16

What may indicate subtle neurological deficits when walking a dog for the assessment of lameness?

- Catching nails (may hear this)
- turning in tight circles exaggerates the deficits

17

What may be indicated by respiratory deficits in a lameness work up in small animals?

- Pulmonary osteopathy
- Metastatic disease from osteosarcoma

18

What may be indicated by urinary tract disease for a lameness work up in small animals?

- Association with lumbosacral discospondylitis and resulting lameness
- May be extension of urinary disease or prostatic disease

19

Explain the examination for prostatic disease in a lameness work up and describe how this may present in small animals

- E.g. prostatic carcinoma that may have metastatic spread to long bones
- May also have strang/dysuria, haematuria

20

Describe the appearance of neurogenic muscular atrophy

- Marked, very rapid
- Follows pattern of innervation i.e. sciatic affects biceps femoris

21

Describe the examination of the feet and pads in a lameness work up in small animals

- Palpate digits and pads individually
- Twist each nail - blood or pain on twisting indicates nail injury
- Any wear to nails may indicates dragging and in HL may suggest CDRM in GSD, lumbosacral disease, IVDD
- Examine nail beds - common site of pulmonary adenocarcinoma metastasis in cats

22

Describe the examination of joints in a lameness work up in small animals

- Plapate for effusions (esp. stifle)
- Pain
- Medial buttress to stifle indicates problem
- Unsharp margins on patellar tendon indicates effusion
- Instability e.g. in the cruciate using specific tests e.g. cranial drawer
- Abnormal movement e.g. intertarsal subluxatoin, carpal hyperextension shown by palmar/plantar stance

23

Describe the examination of ligaments and tendons in a lameness work up in small animals

- Palpate for swelling
- Heat
- Pain
- Resulting instability if ruptured e.g. patellar higher than expected
- May be unstable in their grooves

24

Outline the assessment of patellar instability in a lameness work up in small animals

- May subluxate medially or laterally
- Often need to flex and extend stifle joint with pressure on patella to bring about subluxation

25

What tests are used to assess for cruciate rupture in small animals?

- Cranial drawer
- Tibial thrust

26

Describe the examination of bones in a lameness work up in small animals

- Palpate as well as radiograph
- Squeeze: in panosteitis will resent this
- Pain on gentle palpation may indicate neoplasia
- Perform towards end of ecamination

27

Describe the neurological aspects assessed in the lameness work up of a small animal

- Neck or thoracolumbar pain assessment
- Palpate axillary region for mass e.g. nerve root tumour
- Rectal examination if HL neurological deficits seen (palpate abnormalities in sacrum or rectal canal(
- Check anal and rectal tone

28

Outline the use of radiography in the lameness work up of a small animal

- Mainstay of further investigation
- Good quality orthogonal views required
- Examine for primary and secondary disease

29

Outline the use of synoviocentesis in the lameness work up of a small animal

- Single joint if only this joint is swollen, suspicion of OA or septic arthritis
- Multiple if polyarthritis suspected (worth tapping 2/3)
- Examine in house with DiffQuik and send off

30

Outline the use of blood tests in the lameness work up of a small animal

- Rheumatoid Factor (RF) for rheumatoid arthritis
- ANA for SLE (may be indicated by leukopaenia, pain in muscles)
- Borrelia burgdorferi serology or PCR of joint fluid