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Flashcards in Small animal MSK diseases 5 Deck (100)
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What results would be expected on serum biochemistry in a case of extraocular myositis?

CK usually normal


Outline the expected findings on orbital sonography/MRI in a case of extraocular myositis

- Swollen extraocular muscles
- Used to eliminate retrobulbar abscess as a differential


Outline the findings on biopsy of affected muscle in a case of extraocular myositis

Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate, gives definitive diagnosis


Outline the treatment of extraocular myositis

- Oral pred 1-2mg/kg SID (generally gives rapid and complete recovery)
- Continue treatment for 4-6 weeks minimum
- If relapse during tapering, add imuran or cyclosporin


Discuss the prognosis for extraocular myositis

Good prognosis for permanent recovery with proper therapy


List common diseases of the canine shoulder joint

- Soft tissue injuries
- Biceps tendon injuries e.g. biceps tendonitis
- Osteochondrosis
- Infraspinatous contracture
- Fracture of scapula or proximal humerus
- Osteoarthritis


List soft tissues that may be damaged in the shoulder joint

- Medial and lateral glenohumeral ligament (collateral ligaments)
- Subscapularis tendon
- Muscles adhering to joint capsule e. g. infraspinatous


Outline the clinical signs of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder in dogs

- Usually medium-large breeds
- May lead to instability
- Increased abduction angles
- Cranial drawer may be present


What abduction angle indicates medial glenohumeral ligament damage?



Outline the diagnosis of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder in dogs

- Difficult
- Arthroscopy possible, allows assessment of all structures within joint capsule
- Assessment of abduction angles and cranial drawer under GA


List the treatment options for soft tissue injuries of the shoulder in dogs

- No treatment found to be long lasting
- Conservative: months
- Surgical imbrication or reinforcement possible (debated)
- Diathermy of medial aspect of joint capsule
- Rest and NSAIDs as required, gradual reintroduction of exercise as well as physio/hydrotherapy


Outline the diagnosis of biceps tendon injury in small animals

- Biceps test: pain on shoulder flexion with elbow extension
- During flexion, place fingers on medial aspect of greater tubercle to identify pain
- With complete rupture are able to extend elbow and shoulder to greater extent than normal due to lack of support from tendon
- Arthroscopy allows identification easily


Where is biceps tendon injury normal located in small animals?

Usually partial tear at insertion on supraglenoid tubercle of capsule


Outline the treatment options for biceps tendon injury in small animals

- Conservative: prolonged rest + NSAIDs
- Intra-articular corticosteroid injection
- Surgical release of biceps tendon at insertion if badly torn +/- re-attachment to proximal humerus with screw and spiked washer (tenodesis)


Describe the typical signalment for osteochondrosis in dogs

- Young (6-10mo)
- Medium to large breed dogs
- Esp. border collies


Describe the clinical signs of osteochondrosis in dogs

Clear pain on shoulder manipulation, esp. flexion


What site is predisposed to osteochondrosis in dogs?

Caudal humeral head articulating surface


Outline the diagnosis of osteochondrosis in dogs

- Radiography: subchondral lucency (caudal aspect of glenoid tuberosity may appear flattened)
- Arthrogram: highlights flap, may indicate cartilage damage
- Arthroscopy: direct visualisation of flap


Outline the treatment options for osteochondrosis in dogs

- Surgical removal of flap (arthrotomy or arthroscopy, break into pieces and remove)
- Conservative if not very lame
- Gentle exercise to gradually remove flap naturally (but can form joint mass, but rarely causes problem and comes sound)


Discuss the prognosis for osteochondrosis in dogs

- Good to excellent
- Esp. if <12mo
- Elbows and stifles poor
- Hocks very bad
- Shoulder generally good prognosis


Describe the clinical signs of mineralisation of forelimb muscles in small animals

- May be incidental finding
- May be associated with FL lameness and pain on firm palpation of region
- Commonly in supraspinatus and infraspinatus (bicipital groove)


Outline the treatment options for muscle mineralisation in the FL of small animals

- Conservative management (rest)
- Surgical excision possible (controversial)


Describe the typical signs of infraspinatus contracture in a dog

- Flexed elbow with external rotation of limb
- Working dogs, repetitive trauma


Outline the treatment of infraspinatus contracture in dogs

- Surgical sectioning of the tendon
- Leads to instant improvement, good long term prognosis


List the common diseases of the elbow joint in dogs

- Elbow dysplasia
- Osteoarthritis
- Elbow fractures


What are the main underlying disorders in elbow dysplasia in dogs?

- Fragmented medial coronoid process
- Osteochondrosis dissecans
- Ununited anconeal process
- Fragmented medial epicondyle
- Tendon enthesiopathy (bony exostosis in tendon)


Describe the characteristic appearance of elbow dysplasia

- Abducted FLs
- Externally rotated
- Do not take full pressure on limb


List the factors that contribute to the development of elbow dysplasia

- Genetic make up
- Growth rate
- Diet (high calcium)
- Exercise


Outline the possible treatment for elbow incongruity resulting from a short ulna, that may lead to elbow dysplasia

- Short ulna leads to anconeus coming up against caudal aspect of humeral condyles, leading to abnormal pressure on joint
- Cut ulna (ulnar osteotomy) to bring into alignment and reduce incongruity
- Several months required to heal


Which individuals are predisposed to fragmentation of the medial coronoid process?

- Large breeds e.g. Rotties, Bernese mountain dog, Newfoundland, Staffies, retrievers
- Males > females